Problem, Observation, Hypothesis, Experimentation, and Conclusion. The main characteristics mentioned in the chapter that contribute to the understanding are that it helps others be able to repeat the research if necessary. They help to replicate, control, and make the experiment precise to replicate.
Surveys and questionnaires are unreliable because they use many influencers such as “according to recent polls” which could be not true. People can also give fake truths in verbal reports. One thing to look for to verify the reliability is to look carefully at the wording of the questions. Also look at the length of the survey/questionnaire.
Pros: Repeatable, sometimes provide facts based on research, precise and uses consistent language, uses control to minimize extraneous factors. Cons: Varies in quality, often contradict one another, research findings tend to not prove conclusions. Along with all of the cons writers also tend to distort research conclusions to fit how they want to get the point across. Change over time.
What is the quality of the source of the report?- look at who published the article; Other than the quality of the source, are there other clues included in the communication suggesting the research was well done?-look at what other sources the writer has included or sourced ;Is there any evidence of strong-sense critical thinking?- look at the conclusion to the research and look at how it connects to the rest of the article.