Archive of ‘Library and information science’ category

facial recognition unlawfully used

Facial recognition has been used unlawfully and violated human rights, UK Court of Appeal rules in landmark case from r/technology

A British police force violated human rights by unlawfully using facial recognition technology, the Court of Appeal has ruled in a landmark case.

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/facial-recognition-unlawful-violation-human-rights-court-of-appeal-a9664441.html

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more on facial recognition in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=facial+recognition

EU sanctions hackers

EU sanctions China, Russia, and North Korea for past hacks

The EU has imposed today its first-ever economical sanctions following cyber-attacks from foreign adversaries.

https://www.zdnet.com/article/eu-sanctions-china-russia-and-north-korea-for-past-hacks/

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EU sanctions Russian intelligence, North Korean, Chinese firms over alleged cyberattacks

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-eu-cybercrime-russia-sanctions-idUSKCN24V32Q

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Pompeo praises EU over sanctions targeting cyberattacks from China, Russia

https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/world/pompeo-praises-eu-over-sanctions-targeting-cyberattacks-from-china-russia/ar-BB17nVlN

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more on hackers in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=hacker

Academia communication in pandemic

https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2020/07/22/round-the-clock-communication-is-exhausting-teachers.html

Even before the pandemic, texting and school communication apps—like Remind or ClassDojo—had given students and families new ways to contact teachers 24/7. But teachers like Davis say that school closures have increased the pressure to be “always on” for students and parents, as remote instruction has blurred the boundaries between work life and home life.

Teachers want to be available to their students, to clarify their questions and calm their fears. But it’s also crucial that teachers set time aside for themselves, and that schools and districts respect—and even help create—these boundaries

Developing systems that protect teacher well-being should be a priority for schools in the fall, …, as the demands of remote learning aren’t likely to disappear.

An ‘Internal Battle’ Over Boundaries

administration set a policy that teachers didn’t have to respond to messages sent after 5 p.m. until the next day.

or

distributing responsibility. Grade-level teams could take turns having “on” hours

social media and conspiracy theories

Study: U.S. adults who mostly rely on social media for news are less informed, exposed to more conspiracies from r/technology

Study: US adults who mostly rely on social media for news are less informed, exposed to more conspiracies

new report from Pew Research makes an attempt to better understand U.S. adults who get their news largely from social media platforms, and compare their understanding of current events and political knowledge to those who use other sources, like TV, radio and news publications.

Apple Glass

‘Apple Glass’ users may be able to manipulate AR images with any real object from r/gadgets

https://appleinsider.com/articles/20/07/30/apple-glass-users-may-be-able-to-manipulate-ar-images-with-any-real-object

With AR and especially with what Apple refers to as Mixed Reality (MR), it’s great to be able to see an iPad Pro in front of you, but you need to be able to use it. You have to be able to pick up a virtual object and use it, or otherwise AR is no better than a 3D movie.

Apple’s proposed solution is described in “Manipulation of Virtual Objects using a Tracked Physical Object,” a patent application filed in January 2020 but only revealed this week. It suggests that truly mixing realities, in that the virtual object could be mapped onto an actual object in the real world.

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more on Apple Glass in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=apple+glass

students data privacy

https://www.edsurge.com/news/2020-06-26-researchers-raise-concerns-about-algorithmic-bias-in-online-course-tools

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Students fear for their data privacy after University of California invests in private equity firm

A financial link between a virtual classroom platform and the University of California system is raising eyebrows

https://www.salon.com/2020/07/28/students-fear-for-their-data-privacy-after-university-of-california-invests-in-private-equity-firm/

Instructure has made it clear through their own language that they view the student data they aggregated as one of their chief assets, although they have also insisted that they do not use that data improperly. My note: “improperly” is relative and requires defining.

Yet an article published in the Virginia Journal of Law and Technology, titled “Transparency and the Marketplace for Student Data,” pointed out that there is “an overall lack of transparency in the student information commercial marketplace and an absence of law to protect student information.” As such, some students at the University of California are concerned that — despite reassurances to the contrary — their institution’s new financial relationship with Thoma Bravo will mean their personal data can be sold or otherwise misused.

The students’ concerns over surveillance and privacy are not unwarranted. Previously, the University of California used military surveillance technology to help quell the grad student strikes at UC Santa Cruz and other campuses

AI and ed research

https://www.scienceopen.com/document/read?vid=992eaf61-35dd-454e-aa17-f9f8216b381b

This article presents an examination of how education research is being remade as an experimental data-intensive science. AI is combining with learning science in new ‘digital laboratories’ where ownership over data, and power and authority over educational knowledge production, are being redistributed to research assemblages of computational machines and scientific expertise.

Research across the sciences, humanities and social sciences is increasingly conducted through digital knowledge machines that are reconfiguring the ways knowledge is generated, circulated and used (Meyer and Schroeder, 2015).

Knowledge infrastructures, such as those of statistical institutes or research-intensive universities, have undergone significant digital transformation with the arrival of data-intensive technologies, with knowledge production now enacted in myriad settings, from academic laboratories and research institutes to commercial research and development studios, think tanks and consultancies. Datafied knowledge infrastructures have become hubs of command and control over the creation, analysis and exchange of data (Bigo et al., 2019).

The combination of AI and learning science into an AILSci research assemblage consists of particular forms of scientific expertise embodied by knowledge actors – individuals and organizations – identified by categories including science of learning, AIED, precision education and learning engineering.

Precision education overtly uses psychological, neurological and genomic data to tailor or personalize learning around the unique needs of the individual (Williamson, 2019). Precision education approaches include cognitive tracking, behavioural monitoring, brain imaging and DNA analysis.

Expert power is therefore claimed by those who can perform big data analyses, especially those able to translate and narrate the data for various audiences. Likewise, expert power in education is now claimed by those who can enact data-intensive science of learning, precision education and learning engineering research and development, and translate AILSci findings into knowledge for application in policy and practitioner settings.

the thinking of a thinking infrastructure is not merely a conscious human cognitive process, but relationally performed across humans and socio-material strata, wherein interconnected technical devices and other forms ‘organize thinking and thought and direct action’.
As an infrastructure for AILSci analyses, these technologies at least partly structure how experts think: they generate new understandings and knowledge about processes of education and learning that are only thinkable and knowable due to the computational machinery of the research enterprise.

Big data-based molecular genetics studies are part of a bioinformatics-led transformation of biomedical sciences based on analysing exceptional volumes of data (Parry and Greenhough, 2018), which has transformed the biological sciences to focus on structured and computable data rather than embodied evidence itself.

Isin and Ruppert (2019) have recently conceptualized an emergent form of power that they characterize as sensory power. Building on Foucault, they note how sovereign power gradually metamorphosed into disciplinary power and biopolitical forms of statistical regulation over bodies and populations.
Sensory power marks a shift to practices of data-intensive sensing, and to the quantified tracking, recording and representing of living pulses, movements and sentiments through devices such as wearable fitness monitors, online natural-language processing and behaviour-tracking apps. Davies (2019: 515–20) designates these as ‘techno-somatic real-time sensing’ technologies that capture the ‘rhythms’ and ‘metronomic vitality’ of human bodies, and bring about ‘new cyborg-type assemblages of bodies, codes, screens and machines’ in a ‘constant cybernetic loop of action, feedback and adaptation’.

Techno-somatic modes of neural sensing, using neurotechnologies for brain imaging and neural analysis, are the next frontier in AILSci. Real-time brainwave sensing is being developed and trialled in multiple expert settings.

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more on AI in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=artificial+intelligence

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