### Technology Use Boosts Students’ Confidence in Their Job Prospects [#Infographic]

Graduating seniors believe the technology skills they’ve acquired in college will help them start their careers.

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more on employment and technology in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=employment+technology

### document analysis – literature on the methodology

• Bowen, G. A. (n.d.). Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method. Qualitative Research Journal, 9, 27–40.
Document analysis is a systematic procedure for reviewing or evaluating documents—both printed and electronic (computer-based and Internet-transmitted) material. Like other analytical methods in qualitative research, document analysis requires that data be examined and interpreted in order to elicit meaning, gain understanding, and develop empirical knowledge(Corbin&Strauss,2008;seealsoRapley,2007).
Document analysis is often used in combination with other qualitative research methods as a means of triangulation—‘the combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon’ (Denzin, 1970, p. 291)
The qualitative researcher is expected to draw upon multiple (at least two) sources of evidence; that is, to seek convergence and corroboration through the use of different data sources and methods. Apart from documents, such sources include interviews, participant or non-participant observation, and physical artifacts (Yin,1994).By triangulating data, the researcher attempts to provide ‘a confluence of evidence that breeds credibility’ (Eisner, 1991, p. 110). By examining information collected through different methods, the researcher can corroborate findings across data sets and thus reduce the impact of potential biases that can exist in a single study. According to Patton (1990), triangulation helps the researcher guard against the accusation that a study’s findings are simply an artifact of a single method, a single source, or a single investigator’s bias. Mixed-method studies (which combine quantitative and qualitative research techniques)sometimes include document analysis. Here is an example: In their large-scale, three-year evaluation of regional educational service agencies (RESAs), Rossman and Wilson (1985) combined quantitative and qualitative methods—surveys (to collect quantitative data) and open ended, semi structured interviews with reviews of documents (as the primary sources of qualitative data). The document reviews were designed to identify the agencies that played a role in supporting school improvement programs.
• Glenn A. Bowen, (2009) “Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method”, Qualitative Research Journal, Vol. 9 Issue: 2, pp.27-40, doi: 10.3316/QRJ0902027
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.3316%2FQRJ0902027
• Document Review and Analysis
https://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/researchcourse/develop_docreview.html

Qualitative

• Semiotics (studies the life of signs in society; seeks to understand the underlining messages in visual texts; forms basis for interpretive analysis)
• Discourse Analysis (concerned with production of meaning through talk and texts; how people use language)
• Interpretative Analysis (captures hidden meaning and ambiguity; looks at how messages are encoded or hidden; acutely aware of who the audience is)
• Conversation Analysis (concerned with structures of talk in interaction and achievement of interaction)
• Grounded Theory (inductive and interpretative; developing novel theoretical ideas based on the data)

Document Analysis
Document analysis is a form of qualitative research in which documents are interpreted by the researcher to give voice and meaning around an assessment topic. Analyzing documents incorporates coding content into themes similar to how focus group or interview transcripts are analyzed. A rubric can also be used to grade or score a document. There are three primary types of documents:

• Public Records: The official, ongoing records of an organization’s activities. Examples include student transcripts, mission statements, annual reports, policy manuals, student handbooks, strategic plans, and syllabi.

• Personal Documents: First-person accounts of an individual’s actions, experiences, and beliefs. Examples include calendars, e-mails, scrapbooks, blogs, Facebook posts, duty logs, incident reports, reflections/journals, and newspapers.

• Physical Evidence: Physical objects found within the study setting (often called artifacts). Examples include flyers, posters, agendas, handbooks, and training materials.

As with all research, how you collect and analyse the data should depend on what you want to find out. Since you haven’t told us that, it is difficult to give you any precise advice. However, one really important matter in using documents as sources, whatever the overall aim of your research, is that data from documents are very different from data from speech events such as interviews, or overheard conversations.So the first analytic question you need to ask with regard to documents is ‘how are these data shaped by documentary production ?’  Something which differentiates nearly all data from documents from speech data is that those who compose documents know what comes at the end while still able to alter the beginning; which gives far more opportunity for consideration of how the recepient of the utterances will view the provider; ie for more artful self-presentation. Apart from this however, analysing the way documentary practice shapes your data will depend on what these documents are: for example your question might turn out to be ‘How are news stories produced ?’ – if you are using news reports, or ‘What does this bureaucracy consider relevant information (and what not relevant and what unmentionable) ? if you are using completed proformas or internal reports from some organisation.

An analyse technique is just like a hardware tool. It depends where and with what you are working to choose the right one. For a nail you should use a hammer, nad there are lots of types of hammers to choose, depending on the type of nail.

So, in order to tell you the bettet technique, it is important to know the objectives you intend to reach and the theoretical framework you are using. Perhaps, after that, We could tell you if you should use content analysis, discourse or grounded theory (which type of it as, like the hammer, there are several types of GTs).

written after Bowen (2009), but well chewed and digested.

1. Introduction: Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research?

excellent guide to the structure of a qualitative research

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more on qualitative research in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=qualitative+research

### 8 Things You Should Know before Using Social Media in Your Course

Jennifer Rafferty, Director, OLC Institute for Professional Development,

https://onlinelearningconsortium.org/8-things-you-should-know-before-using-social-media-in-your-course

a variety of available platforms, and many creative ways that faculty are integrating social media into their teaching practice.

• how the digital medium will foster engagement and enhance learning outcomes.
• aware of the implications of having students post content on third-party services (those not provided or hosted by your institution).
• Social media usage in the classroom intersects with both FERPA and Copyright Compliance, so keep this checklist handy as you develop your class activity.

Use contracts.
Use aliases for social media accounts.
Teach your students to use digital media responsibly.
Know where to provide assignment feedback.
Don’t use personal accounts for university business.

Sources

Classification of Social Media Platforms, DelValle Institute Knowledge Base, Office of Public Health Preparedness. Retrieved on March 24, 2017 from  https://delvalle.bphc.org/mod/wiki/view.php?pageid=65

Educause, Is Your Use of Social Media FERPA Compliant? Retrieved on March 24, 2017 from http://www.educause.edu/ero/article/your-use-social-media-ferpa-compliant

Kind, T., Genrich G. and Chretien, K.(2010)  Social Media Policies at US Medical Schools. Medical Education Online.  Retrieved on March 24, 2017 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2941429/

Meyer, L., (2015). Six Alternative Social Media Tools for Teaching and Learning, Campus Technology. Retrieved on March 24, 2017 from https://campustechnology.com/Articles/2015/01/07/6-Alternative-Social-Media-Tools-for-Teaching-and-Learning.aspx?Page=4

Orlando, J., 2011. FERPA and Social Media, Faculty Focus. Retrieved on March 24, 2017 from http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/teaching-with-technology-articles/ferpa-and-social-media/

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more on social media for teaching practices in this IMS blog

http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=social+media+teaching

there is too little understanding of what academic freedom means. It is not absolute and it is not the simple equivalent of “freedom of speech.” All citizens have, or should have, the latter, but only individuals who have specified educational and professional qualifications are entitled to academic freedom within universities. In the words of the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT), they are granted the “freedom to teach and discuss; freedom to carry out research and disseminate and publish the results thereof; freedom to produce and perform creative works; freedom to engage in service to the institution and the community; freedom to express one’s opinion about the institution, its administration, and the system in which one works.”

### Teaching in the age of social media

Engaging with students – both inside and outside the classroom – who are continually linked in to social media and online devices presents a range of opportunities, challenges and pitfalls.

By DAVID SMITH | April 5, 2017
More and more of our public, private and professional lives are migrating online. There is little doubt that social media will infiltrate every aspect of our day-to-day existence. If used effectively, online tools are revolutionary for communicating and stimulating important conversations.

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more on use of technology in the classroom in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2017/04/03/use-of-laptops-in-the-classroom/
more on teaching with social media in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=teach+social+media

### Learning Outside Your Comfort Zone

By:  March 22nd, 2017

http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/teaching-professor-blog/learning-outside-comfort-zone

When we learn something outside the comfort zone, we attempt to acquire knowledge or skills in an area where we’re lacking. Part of the discomfort derives from learning something we anticipate will be difficult. We have no idea how to do it, or we think it requires abilities we don’t have or have in meager amounts. Moreover, poor performance or outright failure lurk as likely possibilities.

I wonder if learning outside the comfort zone isn’t especially difficult for faculty. Theoretically, it shouldn’t be. We’ve devoted years to learning, but most of what we know resides in one area. We’re experts at learning more about what we already know and love. And we’re used to having our learning expertise recognized—by students, colleagues, and sometimes even at home. However, plop us down in a discipline unlike our own, task us with learning a skill we don’t have, and suddenly, we look and act exactly like our students. And that’s the very reason this kind of learning has all sorts of positive implications for teaching. It’s good every now and then to be reacquainted with feeling stupid.

My note. Eventually, I had to tell a [already departured] library director: it is better to throw stones in the swamp of mediocrity then to sink slowly into it. To the objection of my colleague that throwing stones does NOT improve the situation, I could only say: making ripples until someone more diplomatic will draw the attention means more then just slowing sinking into the swamp of mediocrity. That swamp is determined by the inability / unwillingness of faculty the leave their comfort zone.

In regard to the teacher, who has students memorize and recite a poem – I will never forget Herr Klenske, who made us memorize in 10th grade of high school “Erlkoening” (http://ingeb.org/Lieder/werreite.html). It made us hate him as much, as now I, at least, appreciate his unique approach to fostering to high school students persistence and will.

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more about learning in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=learning

### Three Ways to Engage Students In and Outside the Classroom

By:  March 20th, 2017

http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/effective-teaching-strategies/three-ways-engage-students/

#### Get real

realistic role-plays are primarily designed to be problem-solving exercises.

#### Breathe fire

Breathing life into concepts is the hallmark of effective teaching.

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more on students engagement in this IMS blog:
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=students+engagement

Here are some excerpts regarding Koch brothers’ attempts to influence higher education:

The Charles G. Koch Foundation offered to give the university 1.5 million to hire two assistant professors and fund fellowships and undergraduate curriculum on free-enterprise topics. “In exchange for his ‘gift,’ the donor got to assign specific readings, select speakers brought to campus and instruct them with regard to the focus of their lectures, shape the curriculum with new courses and specify the number of students in the courses, name the program’s director, and initiate a student club.” ### How the Koch Brothers Are Influencing U.S. Colleges The most notable difference: While some of Soros’ higher education grants go to programs aligning with his domestic policy priorities, the majority are focused overseas, tax records show. ### Spreading the Free-Market Gospel What’s new and interesting about the Koch brothers’ approach to funding academics DAVE LEVINTHAL https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/10/spreading-the-free-market-gospel/413239/ It is well-known that the Kochs’ network has invested hundreds of millions of hard-to-track dollars in conservative political nonprofits that influence elections. The brothers, who earned theirbillions leading private oil, chemical, and manufacturing conglomerate Koch Industries Inc., were dominant forces in recent election cycles The Kochs educational giving, while rarefied, isn’t the most abundant in the United States. Gordon Moore, the co-founder of Intel, with his wife Betty, this year pledged100 million to the California Institute of Technology—and offered to let the school to spend it as it sees fit.
At the College of Charleston in South Carolina, for example, documents show the foundation wanted more than just academic excellence for its money. It wanted information about students it could potentially use for its own benefit

Among the proposed conditions: Teachings must align with the libertarian economic philosophy of Charles Koch, the Charles Koch Foundation would maintain partial control over faculty hiring and the chairman of the school’s economics department—a prominent economic theorist—must stay in place for another three years despite his plans to step down.

Florida State University ultimately didn’t agree to the initial requests when, in 2008, it reached a funding agreement with the foundation. It’s also tightened and clarified policies that affect private donors’ contributions to the university.

### Just What IS A Charter School, Anyway?

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more on charter schools in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=charter+schools

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