Archive of ‘teaching’ category

cognitive load theory

Cognitive load theory: Research that teachers really need to understand
AUGUST 2017 Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation
https://www.cese.nsw.gov.au/images/stories/PDF/cognitive_load_theory_report_AA1.pdf
Cognitive load theory is built upon two commonly accepted ideas. The first is that there is a limit to how much new information the human brain can process at one time. The second is that there are no known limits to how much stored information can be processed at one time. The aim of cognitive load research is therefore to develop instructional techniques and recommendations that fit within the characteristics of working memory, in order to maximise learning.
Explicit instruction involves teachers clearly showing students what to do and how to do it, rather than having students discover or construct information for themselves
how working memory and long-term memory process and store information
Working memory is the memory system where small amounts of information are stored for a very short duration (RAM). Long-term memory is the memory system where large amounts of information are stored semi-permanently (hard drive)
Cognitive load theory assumes that knowledge is stored in long- term memory in the form of ‘schemas’ 2 . A schema organises elements of information according to how they will be used. According to schema theory, skilled performance is developed through building ever greater numbers of increasingly complex schemas by combining elements of lower level schemas into higher level schemas. There is no limit to how complex schemas can become. An important process in schema construction is automation, whereby information can be processed automatically with minimal conscious effort. Automaticity occurs after extensive practice
Schemas provide a number of important functions that are relevant to learning. First, they provide a system for organising and storing knowledge. Second, and crucially for cognitive load theory, they reduce working memory load. This is because, although there are a limited number of elements that can be held in working memory at one time, a schema constitutes only a single element in working memory. In this way, a high level schema – with potentially infinite informational complexity – can effectively bypass the limits of working memory

Types of cognitive load

Cognitive load theory identifies three different types of cognitive load: intrinsic, extraneous and germane load
Intrinsic cognitive load relates to the inherent difficulty of the subject matter being learnt.

subject matter that is difficult for a novice may be very easy for an expert.
Extraneous cognitive load relates to how the subject matter is taught.
extraneous load is the ‘bad’ type of cognitive load, because it does not directly contribute to learning. Cognitive load theorists consider that instructional design will be most effective when it minimises extraneous load in order to free up the capacity of working memory
Germane cognitive load refers to the load imposed on the working memory by the process of learning – that is, the process of transferring information into the long-term memory through schema construction
the approach of decreasing extraneous cognitive load while increasing germane cognitive load will only be effective if the total cognitive load remains within the limits of working memory
Explicit teaching

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more on educational theories in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=educational+theories

university deans about future

College deans predict higher-ed is in for remarkable changes in 10 years

By Laura Ascione, Managing Editor, Content Services, @eSN_Laura
September 4th, 2017  New survey reveals more than two-thirds of college deans believe institutional change is on the horizon
The survey findings are from the responses of 109 deans of four-year colleges and universities in March and April 2017. Of the respondents, 61 percent were from public universities and 60 percent have been in their jobs at least five years.
Deans were divided on whether faculty members get enough support in teaching courses online–43 percent said faculty are getting shortchanged in how much help they get in rethinking their courses and teaching with technology, while 40 percent said they believe they are getting enough support and 14 percent are neutral.

One-third of deans agree online courses are comparable to face-to-face courses, and roughly the same proportion said they disagree.

Thirty-seven percent of college deans surveyed described the pace of change at their own institutions as “too slow.” Deans surveyed cite lack of money being the biggest hurdle to change, followed by resource constraints on faculty and staff and a resistance or aversion to change.

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university presidents about future in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=university+presidents

empathy

Empathy Is Tough to Teach, But Is One Of the Most Important Life Lessons

Dr. Brené Brown has become famous for her speaking and writing about vulnerability, worthiness, shame and the other important emotions running underneath daily life all the time. One theme she returns to over and over is the importance of cultivating empathy, a very different reaction than sympathy.

Children have opportunities to learn empathy from their parents, but also from their teachers and peers.

Empathy is not found in many official school standards, but it could be one of the most important qualities to develop in young citizens who will go on to be successful actors in a complicated world.

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more on empathy in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=empathy

STEAM

Some Very Good STEAM Websites to Use in Your Class

https://plus.google.com/+Educatorstechnology/posts/BTk2UjWECqJ

http://www.educatorstechnology.com/2017/08/some-very-good-steam-websites-to-use-in.html

STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering ,Art, and Math)  tools to use in your classroom

provide teachers with a handy resource to use with their students to help them develop critical thinking skills and  adopt ‘an engineering or design approach towards real-world problems while building on their mathematics and science base’.

download in PDF format from this link.

Britain US China

LEVERAGING HISTORY What Britain’s Decline and America’s Rise Can Tell Us about China’s Future

https://s3.amazonaws.com/files.cnas.org/documents/CNASReport-LeveragingHistory-final.pdf

Britain
Colonial interests compelled Great Britain to build a complex economic system that funneled resources and wealth to the home islands.  Great Britain’s time as the central organizing great power came to a rapid end, with the United States filling that central role.

the United States can no longer uphold all its commitments to international laws and norms. Gaps in attention to historical American commitments have opened the door for competitor nations, including China, to challenge U.S. leadership at the margins.

p. 17 Does China have a strategic plan to replace the United States as the leader of the world? Some voices suggest that it does; however, it is important to note that they do not suggest that it is modeling its ascent upon the United States’ rise a century ago

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more on history in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=history

deans on university future

Survey: University Deans Predict Significant Change in the Next Decade

By Rhea Kelly  06/28/17

https://campustechnology.com/articles/2017/06/28/survey-university-deans-predict-significant-change-in-the-next-decade.aspx

new study, “The State of Innovation in Higher Education,” in which 2U and the Academy for Innovative Higher Education (a partnership between Arizona State University and Georgetown University) polled 109 deans across the country about their views on innovation in higher ed. Sixty-one percent of respondents come from public universities and 60 percent have at least five years of tenure in their jobs.

The survey findings reveal a mix of confidence and concern about an uncertain future for U.S. higher education:

  • 83 percent of respondents believe that the higher education system today is the best or one of the best in the world;
  • 61 percent think the higher education system will still be the best or one of the best in the world in 10 years;
  • 91 percent expect the number of online programs at their institution to increase in the next decade;
  • 78 percent said colleges and universities are doing a good, very good or excellent job of fostering academic innovation;
  • A quarter of respondents think the higher education system is heading in the right direction; and
  • A third of respondents said the pace of change at their own institutions is “too slow,” citing lack of money as the biggest hurdle to change.

“We also found that, amid rising tuition prices and student debt, most deans still believe that higher education is a good return on the investment,” added Selingo.

The full report is available here.

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more on administration about university future in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2015/10/20/university-presidents-about-the-university-future/

rebranding assessment

Rebranding Student Learning Assessment

By:

https://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/educational-assessment/rebranding-student-learning-assessment/

Another consideration in rebranding assessment would be to emphasize that assessment “draws from multiple sources” of information. This in turn would encourage faculty to think about assessment not as means of judgment, but rather as a process of evidence gathering. In fact, it helps underscore the idea that to really demonstrate effective learning and instruction, we must collect multiple pieces of evidence. As a result, faculty will be more likely to plan and implement multiple and varied assessment methodologies, which in turn will lead to the collection of more evidence and stronger validity of inferences about the extent of student learning.

 

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more on assessment in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=assessment

students technology employment

Technology Use Boosts Students’ Confidence in Their Job Prospects [#Infographic]

Graduating seniors believe the technology skills they’ve acquired in college will help them start their careers.

technology career transition

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more on employment and technology in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=employment+technology

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