The Role of Librarians in Supporting ICT Literacy
May 9, 2019,
Academic librarians increasingly provide guidance to faculty and students for the integration of digital information into the learning experience.
TPACK: Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Many librarians have shied away from ICT literacy, concerned that they may be asked how to format a digital document or show students how to create a formula in a spreadsheet. These technical skills focus more on a specific tool than on the underlying nature of information.
librarians have begun to use an embedded model as a way to deepen their connection with instructors and offer more systematic collection development and instruction. That is, librarians focus more on their partnerships with course instructors than on a separate library entity.
If TPACK is applied to instruction within a course, theoretically several people could be contributing this knowledge to the course. A good exercise is for librarians to map their knowledge onto TPACK.
ICT reflects the learner side of a course. However, ICT literacy can be difficult to integrate because it does not constitute a core element of any academic domain. Whereas many academic disciplines deal with key resources in their field, such as vocabulary, critical thinking, and research methodologies, they tend not to address issues of information seeking or collaboration strategies, let alone technological tools for organizing and managing information.
Instructional design for online education provides an optimal opportunity for librarians to fully collaborate with instructors.
The outcomes can include identifying the level of ICT literacy needed to achieve those learning outcomes, a task that typically requires collaboration between the librarian and the program’s faculty member. Librarians can also help faculty identify appropriate resources that students need to build their knowledge and skills. As education administrators encourage faculty to use open educational resources (OERs) to save students money, librarians can facilitate locating and evaluating relevant resources. These OERs not only include digital textbooks but also learning objects such as simulations, case studies, tutorials, and videos.
Reading online text differs from reading print both physically and cognitively. For example, students scroll down rather than turn online pages. And online text often includes hyperlinks, which can lead to deeper coverage—as well as distraction or loss of continuity of thought. Also, most online text does not allow for marginalia that can help students reflect on the content. Teachers and students often do not realize that these differences can impact learning and retention. To address this issue, librarians can suggest resources to include in the course that provide guidance on reading online.
My note – why specialist like Tom Hergert and the entire IMS is crucial for the SCSU library and librarians and how neglecting the IMS role hurts the SCSU library –
Similarly, other types of media need to be evaluated, comprehended, and interpreted in light of their critical features or “grammar.” For example, camera angles can suggest a person’s status (as in looking up to someone), music can set the metaphorical tone of a movie, and color choices can be associated with specific genres (e.g., pastels for romances or children’s literature, dark hues for thrillers). Librarians can explain these media literacy concepts to students (and even faculty) or at least suggest including resources that describe these features
My note – on years-long repetition of the disconnect between SCSU ATT, SCSU library and IMS –
instructors need to make sure that students have the technical skills to produce these products. Although librarians might understand how media impacts the representation of knowledge, they aren’t necessarily technology specialists. However, instructors and librarians can collaborate with technology specialists to provide that expertise. While librarians can locate online resources—general ones such as Lynda.com or tool-specific guidance—technology specialists can quickly identify digital resources that teach technical skills (my note: in this case IMS). My note: we do not have IDs, another years-long reminder to middle and upper management. Many instructors and librarians have not had formal courses on instructional design, so collaborations can provide an authentic means to gain competency in this process.
My note: Tom and I for years have tried to make aware SCSU about this combo –
Instructors likely have high content knowledge (CK) and satisfactory technological content knowledge (TCK) and technological knowledge (TK) for personal use. But even though newer instructors acquire pedagogical knowledge (PK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) early in their careers, veteran instructors may not have received this training. The same limitations can apply to librarians, but technology has become more central in their professional lives. Librarians usually have strong one-to-one instruction skills (an aspect of PK), but until recently they were less likely to have instructional design knowledge. ICT literacy constitutes part of their CK, at least for newly minted professionals. Instructional designers are strong in TK, PK, and TPK, and the level of their CK (and TCK and TPK) will depend on their academic background. And technology specialists have the corner on TK and TCK (and hopefully TPK if they are working in educational settings), but they may not have deep knowledge about ICT literacy.
Therefore, an ideal team for ICT literacy integration consists of the instructor, the librarian, the instructional designer, and the technology specialist. Each member can contribute expertise and cross-train the teammates. Eventually, the instructor can carry the load of ICT literacy, with the benefit of specific just-in-time support from the librarian and instructional designer.
My note: I have been working for more then six years as embedded librarian in the doctoral cohort and had made aware the current library administrator (without any response) about my work, as well as providing lengthy bibliography (e.g. http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2017/08/24/embedded-librarian-qualifications/ and have had meeting with the current SOE administrator and the library administrator (without any response).
I also have delivered discussions to other institutions (http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2018/04/12/embedded-librarian-and-gamification-in-libraries/)
Librarians should seriously consider TPACK as a way to embed themselves into the classroom to incorporate information and ICT literacy.
more about academic library in this IMS blog
more on SAMR and TRACK models in this IMS blog
Friezem, Y. (2017). THE MEDIA PRODUCTION HIVE: USING MEDIA EDUCATION FOR DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION. Media Education, 8(1), 123-140
keywords: Media production, media literacy, Universal Design for Learning (UDL), executive
functioning, Media Production Hive
the theoretical framework of Universal Design for Learning (Rose & Meyer, 2002), teaching the same material via various strategies that cumulatively address needs and learning types of each student in the classroom (p. 126). acknowledge all the various types of learners in his class, such as visual learners, auditory learners, write-read learners, and kinesthetic learners, following Gardner’s (1983) multiple intelligence theory.
various ways of receiving, processing, and expressing information by different learners
various ways students can chose to engage in the process of learning
(p. 127) multiple means of representation guarantees each learner processes information in the best way they can, but it also provides repetition of the topic in various ways to deepen understanding
Students need to organize recently acquired knowledge in a strategic way and communicate their understanding to the teacher. Rose and Meyer (2002) created a detailed pathway for teachers to apply UDL using assistive technology.
Media education practices involve demystifying media messages and learning to use
media wisely through activities of evaluation, composition, introspection, and civic engagement. the links between the instructional design of lessons for all students and
the critical analysis, expression, and reflection on media messages are gradually
explored (Dalton, 2017).
Dalton, E. M. (2017). Universal design for learning: Guiding principles to reduce
barriers to digital & media literacy competence. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 9(2).
p. 128 Media production is the process of composing a message via a single or various media platforms. Media production includes creating videos, podcasts, presentations, posters, drawings, and books. With the increasing use of digital devices and applications, students are engaged in various ways to convey their messages using multiple ways of expression and multiple types of representations.
digital and media literacy competencies (Hobbs, 2010)
p. 137 challenges
Group dynamics often reveal power struggles among team members (Friesem, 2014). The responsibility of the media educator, who is not a mediator by training, is to find the way to mitigate the tension caused by differences among group members (Friesem, 2010). In addition, students have the tendency to use media production as a transgressive practice (Moore, 2011; Grace & Tubin, 1998). Facilitating the process of production involves constant reflection on the classroom power relationship using critical and pragmatic lenses.
Grace, D., & Tobin, J. (1998). Butt jokes and mean-teacher parodies: Video production
in the elementary classroom. In D. Buckingham (Ed.), Teaching popular culture: Beyond radical pedagogy (pp. 42-62). London, UK: University College London Press.
The discourse about the implementations of UDL with digital technology has been broad and used for several research studies (Rose & Meyer, 2002).
Rose, D. H., & Meyer, A. (2002). Teaching every student in the digital age: Universal
design for learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).
more on media literacy in this IMS blog
more on instructional desing in this IMS blog
The Global Critical Media Literacy Educators’ Resource Guide
- About the GCMLP
- Contacts for GCMLP Publication
- Methods of Media Manipulation
- Breaking the Corporate News Frame: Project Censored’s Networked News Commons
- Validated Independent News Story Assignment
- How to Find, Evaluate, and Summarize Validated Independent News Stories
- Validated Independent News Story Grading Rubric
- Validated Independent News Story Grading Criteria
- Student Guide For Evaluating Web Sources
- ‘Becoming the Media:’ Experiential Learning through Media Criticism and Political Activism During National Presidential Elections
- ACME Classroom Activities: Challenging Big Media and News Censorship
- Digging Deeper: Politico-Corporate Media Manipulation, Critical Thinking, and Democracy
- Service Learning: The SUNY Buffalo State and Project Censored Partnership
- Commodifying the Public Sphere Through Advertising and Commercial Media
- Group Advertisement Assignment
- Junk Food News Assignment
- News Abuse Assignment
- Meme Assignment
- Solutions Video Project
- Video Summary Assignment
- Ethics Alerts: Applied Learning Opportunity in Higher Education
- Ethics Alert Assignment
- Critical Analysis of Gender Stereotypes on Television Assignment
- Critical Analysis of Race, Ethnicity, and Class Stereotypes in Entertainment
- 18 Fun and Easy Classroom Activities for Media Education
- Five Ways to Flex Your Media Literacy Muscles
- List of Independent and Corporate News and News Criticism Outlets
- GCMLP Biographies and Participating Institutions
- GCMLP Event on Your Campus Instructions
- Sacred Heart University Graduate Program
- Media Education for a Digital Generation Book Flyer
Regular Pages: https://www.dropbox.com/s/jp5isqrn6ijv9lx/ACMEbookFINAL101215.pdf?dl=0
more on media literacy in this IMS blog
Martens, H., & Hobbs, R. (2015). How Media Literacy Supports Civic Engagement in a Digital Age. Atlantic Journal of Communication
(2), 120–137. http://doi.org/10.1080/15456870.2014.961636
p. 134 How the different forms of literacy interact and support each other is a key question for future research, giventoday’s complex and convergent media and information environment
p. 135 Our ﬁndings support the growing demand for policymakers, educators, and community advocates to embrace media literacy as an important resource to fulﬁll the promise of digital citizenship.
Metaliteracy promotes critical thinking and collaboration in a digital age, providing a comprehensive framework to effectively participate in social media and online communities.
Metaliteracy challenges traditional skills-based approaches to information literacy by recognizing related literacy types and incorporating emerging technologies. Standard definitions of information literacy are insufficient for the revolutionary social technologies currently prevalent online.
Information literacy was the term used most frequently in the United States from the late 1980s through most of the 1990s and is still used regularly. (Craig Gibson, “Information Literacy and IT Fluency: Convergences and Divergences,” Reference & User Services Quarterly 46, no. 3 (2007): 24.)
p. 64. Social media and online collaborative communities are not specifically addressed in the standard definitions, but many of the highlighted skills are pertinent to today’s information environment.
…these institutional frameworks are not on the cutting edge of emerging trends; they lag behind the innovations of Web 2.0 and social media. Metaliteracy expands the scope of information literacy as more
than a set of discrete skills, challenging us to rethink information literacy as active knowledge production and distribution in collaborative online communities.
p. 69. While new literacy movements have similar foundation elements to information literacy, specifically
related to critical reading and critical thinking, as well as proficiencies in finding, synthesizing, and creating information, differences are often emphasized based on the specificity of technology or media
formats. As each new form of literacy is introduced, the shared literacy goals related to critical thinking and information skills are often overlooked, creating an unnecessary divide between information literacy
and other literacy types. The information literacy literature has also contributed to this separation in an effort to clarify important distinctions between information and computer skills, or between traditional
bibliographic instruction and new media literacy. Metaliteracy reinforces stronger
connections between information literacy and other literacy frameworks. This approach looks at the foundation principles that unite information and technology, rather than focusing on differences based
on discrete skills, distinct technologies, or media formats.
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