TWO YEARS AGO, Alison Darcy built a robot to help out the depressed. As a clinical research psychologist at Stanford University, she knew that one powerful way to help people suffering from depression or anxiety is cognitive behavioral therapy, or C.B.T. It’s a form of treatment in which a therapist teaches patients simple techniques that help them break negative patterns of thinking.
In a study with 70 young adults, Darcy found that after two weeks of interacting with the bot, the test subjects had lower incidences of depression and anxiety. They were impressed, and even touched, by the software’s attentiveness.
Many tell Darcy that it’s easier to talk to a bot than a human; they don’t feel judged.
Darcy argues this is a glimpse of our rapidly arriving future, where talking software is increasingly able to help us manage our emotions. There will be A.I.s that detect our feelings, possibly better than we can. “I think you’ll see robots for weight loss, and robots for being more effective communicators,” she says. It may feel odd at first
RECENT HISTORY HAS seen a rapid change in at least one human attitude toward machines: We’ve grown accustomed to talking to them. Millions now tell Alexa or Siri or Google Assistant to play music, take memos, put something on their calendar or tell a terrible joke.
One reason botmakers are embracing artificiality is that the Turing Test turns out to be incredibly difficult to pass. Human conversation is full of idioms, metaphors and implied knowledge: Recognizing that the expression “It’s raining cats and dogs” isn’t actually about cats and dogs, for example, surpasses the reach of chatbots.
Conversational bots thus could bring on a new wave of unemployment — or “readjustment,” to use the bloodless term of economics. Service workers, sales agents, telemarketers — it’s not hard to imagine how millions of jobs that require social interaction, whether on the phone or online, could eventually be eliminated by code.
One person who bought a Jibo was Erin Partridge, an art therapist in Alameda, Calif., who works with the elderly. When she took Jibo on visits, her patients loved it.
For some technology critics, including Sherry Turkle, who does research on the psychology of tech at M.I.T., this raises ethical concerns. “People are hard-wired with sort of Darwinian vulnerabilities, Darwinian buttons,” she told me. “And these Darwinian buttons are pushed by this technology.” That is, programmers are manipulating our emotions when they create objects that inquire after our needs.
The precursor to today’s bots, Joseph Weizenbaum’s ELIZA, was created at M.I.T. in 1966. ELIZA was a pretty crude set of prompts, but by simply asking people about their feelings, it drew them into deep conversations.
Computational Propaganda: Bots, Targeting And The Future
February 9, 201811:37 AM ET ADAM FRANK
Combine the superfast calculational capacities of Big Compute with the oceans of specific personal information comprising Big Data — and the fertile ground for computational propaganda emerges. That’s how the small AI programs called bots can be unleashed into cyberspace to target and deliver misinformation exactly to the people who will be most vulnerable to it. These messages can be refined over and over again based on how well they perform (again in terms of clicks, likes and so on). Worst of all, all this can be done semiautonomously, allowing the targeted propaganda (like fake news stories or faked images) to spread like viruses through communities most vulnerable to their misinformation.
According to Bolsover and Howard, viewing computational propaganda only from a technical perspective would be a grave mistake. As they explain, seeing it just in terms of variables and algorithms “plays into the hands of those who create it, the platforms that serve it, and the firms that profit from it.”
Computational propaganda is a new thing. People just invented it. And they did so by realizing possibilities emerging from the intersection of new technologies (Big Compute, Big Data) and new behaviors those technologies allowed (social media). But the emphasis on behavior can’t be lost.
People are not machines. We do things for a whole lot of reasons including emotions of loss, anger, fear and longing. To combat computational propaganda’s potentially dangerous effects on democracy in a digital age, we will need to focus on both its howand its why.
more on big data in this IMS blog
more on bots in this IMS blog
more on fake news in this IMS blog
Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things in Libraries
Holland, B. (2020). Emerging Technology and Today’s Libraries. In Holland, B. (Eds.), Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things in Libraries (pp. 1-33). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4742-7.ch001
The purpose of this chapter is to examine emerging technology and today’s libraries. New technology stands out first and foremost given that they will end up revolutionizing every industry in an age where digital transformation plays a major role. Major trends will define technological disruption. The next-gen of communication, core computing, and integration technologies will adopt new architectures. Major technological, economic, and environmental changes have generated interest in smart cities. Sensing technologies have made IoT possible, but also provide the data required for AI algorithms and models, often in real-time, to make intelligent business and operational decisions. Smart cities consume different types of electronic internet of things (IoT) sensors to collect data and then use these data to manage assets and resources efficiently. This includes data collected from citizens, devices, and assets that are processed and analyzed to monitor and manage, schools, libraries, hospitals, and other community services.
Makori, E. O. (2020). Blockchain Applications and Trends That Promote Information Management. In Holland, B. (Eds.), Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things in Libraries
(pp. 34-51). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4742-7.ch002
Blockchain revolutionary paradigm is the new and emerging digital innovation that organizations have no choice but to embrace and implement in order to sustain and manage service delivery to the customers. From disruptive to sustaining perspective, blockchain practices have transformed the information management environment with innovative products and services. Blockchain-based applications and innovations provide information management professionals and practitioners with robust and secure opportunities to transform corporate affairs and social responsibilities of organizations through accountability, integrity, and transparency; information governance; data and information security; as well as digital internet of things.
Hahn, J. (2020). Student Engagement and Smart Spaces: Library Browsing and Internet of Things Technology. In Holland, B. (Eds.), Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things in Libraries
(pp. 52-70). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4742-7.ch003
The purpose of this chapter is to provide evidence-based findings on student engagement within smart library spaces. The focus of smart libraries includes spaces that are enhanced with the internet of things (IoT) infrastructure and library collection maps accessed through a library-designed mobile application. The analysis herein explored IoT-based browsing within an undergraduate library collection. The open stacks and mobile infrastructure provided several years (2016-2019) of user-generated smart building data on browsing and selecting items in open stacks. The methods of analysis used in this chapter include transactional analysis and data visualization of IoT infrastructure logs. By analyzing server logs from the computing infrastructure that powers the IoT services, it is possible to infer in greater detail than heretofore possible the specifics of the way library collections are a target of undergraduate student engagement.
Treskon, M. (2020). Providing an Environment for Authentic Learning Experiences. In Holland, B. (Eds.), Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things in Libraries
(pp. 71-86). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4742-7.ch004
The Loyola Notre Dame Library provides authentic learning environments for undergraduate students by serving as “client” for senior capstone projects. Through the creative application of IoT technologies such as Arduinos and Raspberry Pis in a library setting, the students gain valuable experience working through software design methodology and create software in response to a real-world challenge. Although these proof-of-concept projects could be implemented, the library is primarily interested in furthering the research, teaching, and learning missions of the two universities it supports. Whether the library gets a product that is worth implementing is not a requirement; it is a “bonus.”
Rashid, M., Nazeer, I., Gupta, S. K., & Khanam, Z. (2020). Internet of Things: Architecture, Challenges, and Future Directions. In Holland, B. (Ed.), Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things in Libraries
(pp. 87-104). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4742-7.ch005
The internet of things (IoT) is a computing paradigm that has changed our daily livelihood and functioning. IoT focuses on the interconnection of all the sensor-based devices like smart meters, coffee machines, cell phones, etc., enabling these devices to exchange data with each other during human interactions. With easy connectivity among humans and devices, speed of data generation is getting multi-fold, increasing exponentially in volume, and is getting more complex in nature. In this chapter, the authors will outline the architecture of IoT for handling various issues and challenges in real-world problems and will cover various areas where usage of IoT is done in real applications. The authors believe that this chapter will act as a guide for researchers in IoT to create a technical revolution for future generations.
Martin, L. (2020). Cloud Computing, Smart Technology, and Library Automation. In Holland, B. (Eds.), Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things in Libraries
(pp. 105-123). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4742-7.ch006
As technology continues to change, the landscape of the work of librarians and libraries continue to adapt and adopt innovations that support their services. Technology also continues to be an essential tool for dissemination, retrieving, storing, and accessing the resources and information. Cloud computing is an essential component employed to carry out these tasks. The concept of cloud computing has long been a tool utilized in libraries. Many libraries use OCLC to catalog and manage resources and share resources, WorldCat, and other library applications that are cloud-based services. Cloud computing services are used in the library automation process. Using cloud-based services can streamline library services, minimize cost, and the need to have designated space for servers, software, or other hardware to perform library operations. Cloud computing systems with the library consolidate, unify, and optimize library operations such as acquisitions, cataloging, circulation, discovery, and retrieval of information.
Owusu-Ansah, S. (2020). Developing a Digital Engagement Strategy for Ghanaian University Libraries: An Exploratory Study. In Holland, B. (Eds.), Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things in Libraries
(pp. 124-139). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4742-7.ch007
This study represents a framework that digital libraries can leverage to increase usage and visibility. The adopted qualitative research aims to examine a digital engagement strategy for the libraries in the University of Ghana (UG). Data is collected from participants (digital librarians) who are key stakeholders of digital library service provision in the University of Ghana Library System (UGLS). The chapter reveals that digital library services included rare collections, e-journal, e-databases, e-books, microfilms, e-theses, e-newspapers, and e-past questions. Additionally, the research revealed that the digital library service patronage could be enhanced through outreach programmes, open access, exhibitions, social media, and conferences. Digital librarians recommend that to optimize digital library services, literacy programmes/instructions, social media platforms, IT equipment, software, and website must be deployed. In conclusion, a DES helps UGLS foster new relationships, connect with new audiences, and establish new or improved brand identity.
Nambobi, M., Ssemwogerere, R., & Ramadhan, B. K. (2020). Implementation of Autonomous Library Assistants Using RFID Technology. In Holland, B. (Ed.), Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things in Libraries
(pp. 140-150). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4742-7.ch008
This is an interesting time to innovate around disruptive technologies like the internet of things (IoT), machine learning, blockchain. Autonomous assistants (IoT) are the electro-mechanical system that performs any prescribed task automatically with no human intervention through self-learning and adaptation to changing environments. This means that by acknowledging autonomy, the system has to perceive environments, actuate a movement, and perform tasks with a high degree of autonomy. This means the ability to make their own decisions in a given set of the environment. It is important to note that autonomous IoT using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is used in educational sectors to boost the research the arena, improve customer service, ease book identification and traceability of items in the library. This chapter discusses the role, importance, the critical tools, applicability, and challenges of autonomous IoT in the library using RFID technology.
Priya, A., & Sahana, S. K. (2020). Processor Scheduling in High-Performance Computing (HPC) Environment. In Holland, B. (Ed.), Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things in Libraries
(pp. 151-179). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4742-7.ch009
Processor scheduling is one of the thrust areas in the field of computer science. The future technologies use a huge amount of processing for execution of their tasks like huge games, programming software, and in the field of quantum computing. In real-time, many complex problems are solved by GPU programming. The primary concern of scheduling is to reduce the time complexity and manpower. Several traditional techniques exit for processor scheduling. The performance of traditional techniques is reduced when it comes to the huge processing of tasks. Most scheduling problems are NP-hard in nature. Many of the complex problems are recently solved by GPU programming. GPU scheduling is another complex issue as it runs thousands of threads in parallel and needs to be scheduled efficiently. For such large-scale scheduling problems, the performance of state-of-the-art algorithms is very poor. It is observed that evolutionary and genetic-based algorithms exhibit better performance for large-scale combinatorial and internet of things (IoT) problems.
Librarians are beginning to offer virtual reality (VR) services in libraries. This chapter reviews how libraries are currently using virtual reality for both consumption and creation purposes. Virtual reality tools will be compared and contrasted, and recommendations will be given for purchasing and circulating headsets and VR equipment. Google Tour Creator and a smartphone or 360-degree camera can be used to create a virtual tour of the library and other virtual reality content. These new library services will be discussed along with practical advice and best practices for incorporating virtual reality into the library for instructional and entertainment purposes.
Heffernan, K. L., & Chartier, S. (2020). Augmented Reality Gamifies the Library: A Ride Through the Technological Frontier. In Holland, B. (Ed.), Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things in Libraries
(pp. 194-210). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4742-7.ch011
Two librarians at a University in New Hampshire attempted to integrate gamification and mobile technologies into the exploration of, and orientation to, the library’s services and resources. From augmented reality to virtual escape rooms and finally an in-house app created by undergraduate, campus-based, game design students, the library team learned much about the triumphs and challenges that come with attempting to utilize new technologies to reach users in the 21st century. This chapter is a narrative describing years of various attempts, innovation, and iteration, which have led to the library team being on the verge of introducing an app that could revolutionize campus discovery and engagement.
Miltenoff, P. (2020). Video 360 and Augmented Reality: Visualization to Help Educators Enter the Era of eXtended Reality. In Holland, B. (Eds.), Emerging Trends and Impacts of the Internet of Things in Libraries
(pp. 211-225). IGI Global. http://doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-4742-7.ch012
The advent of all types of eXtended Reality (XR)—VR, AR, MR—raises serious questions, both technological and pedagogical. The setup of campus services around XR is only the prelude to the more complex and expensive project of creating learning content using XR. In 2018, the authors started a limited proof-of-concept augmented reality (AR) project for a library tour. Building on their previous research and experience creating a virtual reality (VR) library tour, they sought a scalable introduction of XR services and content for the campus community. The AR library tour aimed to start us toward a matrix for similar services for the entire campus. They also explored the attitudes of students, faculty, and staff toward this new technology and its incorporation in education, as well as its potential and limitations toward the creation of a “smart” library.