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MOOC Copyright for Educators & Librarians Kevin Smith, M.L.S., J.D., Lisa A. Macklin, J.D.,M.L.S., Anne Gilliland, JD, MLS

Copyright for Educators & Librarians

by Kevin Smith, M.L.S., J.D., Lisa A. Macklin, J.D.,M.L.S., Anne Gilliland, JD, MLS

thread Wk 1 – T2: Copyright: Shortened or Lengthened? – PART 1

Follow the money” was mentioned as a way to understand the concept of copyright and copyright law

Copyright lengths should be shortened.  Term lengths like these rarely benefit actual people.  They benefit corporations, be it publishers or things like Disney.

Karen Lightner: I can see the usefulness of bringing the US into line with the Berne Convention, so that we are in line with other nations’ laws. But the additional 20 years we have added for individuals and the incredibly long period for corporations goes against, I believe, what the founding fathers intended when they specified for a limited time.

Edwin A Quist: There are collections of so-called production music issued with licenses to be used for educational videos.  We have at least two sets of these in our music library (in various styles: rock ,classical, world, electronic, etc.) — but don’t expect great art!  Also WikiMedia Commons has some CC licensed music.

Brad Whitehead: I have no quarrel with protecting corporate trademarks — Disney characters or Nike swooshes, etc. — but maintaining monopolies on creative works for such extended periods primarily  enriches publishers with no benefit to the creators.

Nicholas Theo: There are definitely works created where it can be next to impossible to find the owner, or their descendant 20 years after the creation of the work. I have also witnessed when you do track these people down that they want an exorbitant sum of money for permission to use their creation even when there has been absolutely no interest in it. In the end no deal is made. On the other hand I work with two small non profit organizations whose body of work is of value. The material is actively used, and the body of work is a core asset for the organization. What happens to each organization once the copyrights expire? One organization faces this reality in 2015. The Internet permits an environment where decades of work may be used, and in some instances in ways the original material was never intended to be used. For instance, written passages can be misquoted and there will no longer be a legal mechanism to halt this practice.

Karen Case: I would be curious to know if the Youtube video with Mozart would have been removed if the link was made private.

Susan Martel: I think about The Hobbit which was published in 1937.  The author, Tolkien, died in 1973, and I remember his books being popular in the seventies and the eighties.  It was fairly recently that movies were made based on his books.  It seems fair (and I hope that it is the case) that he left a great legacy behind to his family so that they could continue to receive income from his work.  If Tolkien’s works were in the public domain by the time the movies were made, it is just an easy way for those working in the movie industry to become even wealthier without having to pay anything to the author or his beneficiaries.  Not all works have the kind of potential that Tolkien’s did, but without a crystal ball to predict the future it may be difficult to predict accurately what works will have continued success for generations and which will just be a flash in the pan.

Charles N. Norton: There is something called “Good Faith” effort that many archives hold to that tends to be the “standard” when trying to use copyrighted material for educational use, but it really only applies when you know who the copyright holder is and for whatever reason they simply do not respond to your requests. It does not remove the authors rights and, in fact, many times one does end up having to remove shared material after the fact because the copyright holders finally does get around to denying permission.

Lesli Moore: I’m glad to see some discussion about Open Access to works.  Perhaps instead of shortening the term, creators can circumvent the terms by offering open access using Creative Commons.

Jef Gielen: There are pros and cons. Do we find it reasonable that heirs take benefit from a work they did not contribute to at all ? To me, this is not evident. On the other hand, the copyright can be in hand of foundations trying to continue the work of an author – e.g. by means of scholarships. That’s another story ..

Resources:
Here is a complete list of all the suggested readings for the Copyright for Educations and Librarians Course. Click here for a downloadable PDF version of the Suggested Readings that contains the full URL links.

Week 1

 

Week 2

Week 3

Samples:

OPTIONAL – Resources on music copyright:

Sources for examples:

For the history behind the controversy over “The Lion Sleeps Tonight,” listen to these three YouTube videos:

  • Linda’s “Mbube” – 1939 (start at 0:21)
  • The Weavers with Pete Seeger “Wimoweh” – 1952 (start at 1:13)
  • Tokens “The Lion Sleeps Tonight” – 1961 (start at 0:15)

Week 4

Free Course – Copyright for Educators & Librarians

Free Course – Copyright for Educators & Librarians

http://www.freetech4teachers.com/2014/06/free-course-copyright-for-educators.html?m=1

Copyright can be one heck of a confusing topic. There seems to be an endless number of nuances and exceptions to copyright rules. To help educators gain a better understanding of copyright as it relates to schools, instructors from Duke, Emory, and UNC Chapel Hill have created a Coursera course titled Copyright for Educators & Librarians.

Copyright for Educators & Librarians is a four week course beginning on July 21st. It is free to register and participate in this online professional development course. Attendees who desire a “verified certificate” can register for that option for a $49 fee.

The course will feature four units of study:

  • A framework for thinking about copyright.
  • Authorship and rights.
  • Specific exceptions for teachers and librarians.
  • Understanding and using fair use.
If you’re looking for a primer on copyright issues, take a look at this collection of resources for learning about and teaching about copyright.

data driven education

https://www.kqed.org/mindshift/45396/whats-at-risk-when-schools-focus-too-much-on-student-data

The U.S. Department of Education emphasizes “ensuring the use of multiple measures of school success based on academic outcomes, student progress, and school quality.”

starting to hear more about what might be lost when schools focus too much on data. Here are five arguments against the excesses of data-driven instruction.

1) Motivation (decrease)

as stereotype threat. threatening students’ sense of belonging, which is key to academic motivation.

2) Helicoptering

A style of overly involved “intrusive parenting” has been associated in studies with increased levels of anxiety and depression when students reach college.

3) Commercial Monitoring and Marketing

The National Education Policy Center releases annual reports on commercialization and marketing in public schools. In its most recent report in May, researchers there raised concerns about targeted marketing to students using computers for schoolwork and homework.

Companies like Google pledge not to track the content of schoolwork for the purposes of advertising. But in reality these boundaries can be a lot more porous.

4) Missing What Data Can’t Capture

5) Exposing Students’ “Permanent Records”

In the past few years several states have passed laws banning employers from looking at the credit reports of job applicants.
Similarly, for young people who get in trouble with the law, there is a procedure for sealing juvenile records
Educational transcripts, unlike credit reports or juvenile court records, are currently considered fair game for gatekeepers like colleges and employers. These records, though, are getting much more detailed.

Alternative Credentials

Alternative Credentials: How Can Higher Education Organizations Leverage Open Badges?

By Stefanie Panke for AACE Review, 

https://www.aace.org/review/alternative-credentials-how-can-higher-education-organizations-leverage-open-badges/

Badges are a mechanism to award ‘micro-credits’ online. They are awarded by an organization for an individual user, and can be either internal to a website or online community, or use open standards and shared repositories.

In open online learning settings, badges are used to provide incentives for individuals to use our resources and to participate in discussion threads.

The IBM skills gateway is an example of how open badges can be leveraged to document professional development. EDUCAUSE microcredentialing program offers 108 digital badges in five categories (community service, expertise development, presentation and facilitation, leadership development, awards).

Open Badge Initiative and “Digital Badges for Lifelong Learning” became the theme of the fourth Digital Meaning & Learning competition, in which over 30 innovative badge systems and 10 research studies received over $5 million in funding between 2012 and 2013.

Standardization is the key to creating transferability and recognition across contexts

In 2018, the new Open Badges 2.0 standard was released under the stewardship of IMS Global Learning Consortium.

badges awarded for participation are valued less meaningful than skill-based badges. For skill-based badges, evidence of mastery must be associated with the badge along with the evaluation criteria. Having a clear purpose, ensuring transferability, and specifying learning objectives were noted by the interviewees as the top priorities when implementing badge offerings in higher education contexts.

Sheryl Grant is a senior researcher on user experience at OpenWorks Group, a company that focuses on supporting educational web applications and mobile tools, including credentialing services. Prior to her current position, Dr. Grant was Director of Alternative Credentialing and Badge Research at HASTAC. She was part of the team that organized the ‘Badges for Lifelong Learning Competition’.

advice o offer for the design and implementation of digital badges. She stressed that badge systems need to be designed in a participatory manner together with the target audience who is supposed to receive them. This will allow for fair, realistic and transparent criteria. Another crucial aspect is the assessment portion: Who will make verify that the badge credentials are issued correctly? While badges can offer additional motivation, they can also diminish motivation and create a ‘race to the bottom’ if they are obtained too easily. Specifically, Dr. Grant advised to use badges to reward exceptional activities, and acknowledge students who want to go above and beyond. She also gave guidelines on when to avoid issuing badges, i.e., activities that are already graded and activities that are required.

All current UNC badging pilots used the platform cred.ly for issuing badges. An alternative is the Mozilla Open Badge backpack follow-up Badgr. The European platform Badgecraft is another repository with a fairly broad user base. The badge wiki project offers a comprehensive list with implementation details for each platform: Badge Platforms (Badge Wiki). (23 platforms)

Designing Effective Digital Badges (https://www.amazon.com/Designing-Effective-Digital-Badges-Applications/dp/1138306134) is a hands-on guide to the principles, implementation, and assessment of digital badging systems. Informed by the fundamental concepts and research-based characteristics of effective badge design, this book uses real-world examples to convey the advantages and challenges of badging and showcases its application across a variety of contexts.

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more on microcred in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=microcredentialing

Digital Destruction of Democracy

The Digital Destruction of Democracy

ANYA SCHIFFRIN JANUARY 21, 2019

https://prospect.org/article/digital-destruction-democracy

Anya Schiffrin is an adjunct faculty member at the School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University. She worked in Hanoi from 1997 to 1999 as the bureau chief of Dow Jones Newswires.
Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation, and Radicalization in American Politics
By Yochai Benkler, Robert Faris, & Hal Roberts
Oxford University Press
A Harvard law professor who is a well-known theorist of the digital age, Benkler and colleagues have produced an authoritative tome that includes multiple taxonomies and literature reviews as well as visualizations of the flow of disinformation.
clickbait fabricators
white supremacist and alt-right trolls
a history of the scholarship on propaganda, reminding the reader that much of the discussion began in the 1930s.
Benkler’s optimistic 2007 book, The Wealth of Networks, predicted that the Internet would bring people together and transform the way information is created and spread. Today, Benkler is far less sanguine and has become one of the foremost researchers of disinformation networks.
Fox News, BreitbartThe Daily CallerInfoWars, and Zero Hedge
As a result, mainstream journalists repeat and amplify the falsehoods even as they debunk them.
There is no clear line, they argue, between Russian propaganda, Breitbart lies, and the Trump victory. They add that Fox News is probably more influential than Facebook.
after George Soros gave a speech in January 2018 calling for regulation of the social media platforms, Facebook hired a Republican opposition research firm to shovel dirt at George Soros.
The European Union has not yet tried to regulate disinformation (although they do have codes of practice for the platforms), instead focusing on taxation, competition regulation, and protection of privacy. But Germany has strengthened its regulations regarding online hate speech, including the liability of the social media platforms.
disclosure of the sources of online political advertising.It’s a bit toothless because, just as with offshore bank accounts, it may be possible to register which U.S. entity is paying for online political advertising, but it’s impossible to know whether that entity is getting its funds from overseas. Even the Honest Ads bill was too much for Facebook to take.

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more on the issues of digital world and democracy in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2019/02/19/facebook-digital-gangsters/

Education and Ethics

4 Ways AI Education and Ethics Will Disrupt Society in 2019

By Tara Chklovski     Jan 28, 2019

https://www.edsurge.com/news/2019-01-28-4-ways-ai-education-and-ethics-will-disrupt-society-in-2019

In 2018 we witnessed a clash of titans as government and tech companies collided on privacy issues around collecting, culling and using personal data. From GDPR to Facebook scandals, many tech CEOs were defending big data, its use, and how they’re safeguarding the public.

Meanwhile, the public was amazed at technological advances like Boston Dynamic’s Atlas robot doing parkour, while simultaneously being outraged at the thought of our data no longer being ours and Alexa listening in on all our conversations.

1. Companies will face increased pressure about the data AI-embedded services use.

2. Public concern will lead to AI regulations. But we must understand this tech too.

In 2018, the National Science Foundation invested $100 million in AI research, with special support in 2019 for developing principles for safe, robust and trustworthy AI; addressing issues of bias, fairness and transparency of algorithmic intelligence; developing deeper understanding of human-AI interaction and user education; and developing insights about the influences of AI on people and society.

This investment was dwarfed by DARPA—an agency of the Department of Defence—and its multi-year investment of more than $2 billion in new and existing programs under the “AI Next” campaign. A key area of the campaign includes pioneering the next generation of AI algorithms and applications, such as “explainability” and common sense reasoning.

Federally funded initiatives, as well as corporate efforts (such as Google’s “What If” tool) will lead to the rise of explainable AI and interpretable AI, whereby the AI actually explains the logic behind its decision making to humans. But the next step from there would be for the AI regulators and policymakers themselves to learn about how these technologies actually work. This is an overlooked step right now that Richard Danzig, former Secretary of the U.S. Navy advises us to consider, as we create “humans-in-the-loop” systems, which require people to sign off on important AI decisions.

3. More companies will make AI a strategic initiative in corporate social responsibility.

Google invested $25 million in AI for Good and Microsoft added an AI for Humanitarian Action to its prior commitment. While these are positive steps, the tech industry continues to have a diversity problem

4. Funding for AI literacy and public education will skyrocket.

Ryan Calo from the University of Washington explains that it matters how we talk about technologies that we don’t fully understand.

 

 

 

college finances for waste

Students, employees scour college finances for waste, proof of unfair pay

As public confidence declines, university budgets and investments face growing scrutiny

https://hechingerreport.org/increasingly-skeptical-students-employees-want-colleges-to-show-them-the-money/ 
But seldom has this level of attention from students and employees been so focused on the finances of their own campuses. It coincides with what polls disclose is falling public confidence in higher education. And given the results, it seems likely to create more, not less, mistrust.
Higher education has become a popular public target. Fifty-eight percent of people polled by the think tank New Americasaid colleges and universities put their own interests ahead of those of students. About the same proportion in a Public Agenda survey said colleges care mostly about the bottom line, and 44 percent said they’re wasteful and inefficient. And a Gallup poll found that more than half of Americans have only some, or very little, confidence in higher education.
We want to see greater transparency in how they spend our money. And it is our money, most of it,” since such a large percentage of the budget comes from tuition

Emotional Data on the Job

How to Manage Your Own Emotional Data on the Job

emotions can give you truly pertinent, useful data about business problems that need attention.

negative emotions are useful indicators of both your instincts and your beliefs:

  • If you’re feeling sad or down, you’re probably unhappy with your own behavior or the effectiveness of your response to events. You might be thinking that something has gone wrong and that it was your fault. Be careful not to leave sadness unattended or it can slide into hopelessness and the belief that you’ll never be able to make things better. Instead, let sadness prompt you to change: Look for small actions and steps to make headway and improvements.
  • If you’re angry, you may be experiencing a fairness issue of some kind, and the anger may be telling you about a sense of violation or something that needs to be set right.
  • If you’re afraid or don’t feel safe in some way, you may sense that something bad is going to happen but you’re not sure what it is or how it might damage you. Or perhaps you don’t trust upcoming events or the people involved. Your fear can alert you to do extra preparation and contingency planning so you’ll have your best shot at success.

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more on mindfulness in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=mindfulness

LinkedIn and Snapchat stories

LinkedIn launches its own Snapchat Stories. Here’s why it shouldn’t have

No app is safe from the Stories plague

 LinkedIn confirms to TechCrunch that it plans to build Stories for more sets of users, but first it’s launching “Student Voices” just for university students in the U.S. The feature appears atop the LinkedIn home screen and lets students post short videos to their Campus Playlist.

My note: Since 2012, I unsuccessfully tried to convince two library directors to approve similar video “channel” on the SCSU library web page with students’ testimonies and ability for students to comment / provide feedback regarding the issues raised in the videos. Can you guess the outcome of such proposal?
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2018/11/03/video-skills-digital-literacy/

A LinkedIn spokesperson tells us the motive behind the feature is to get students sharing their academic experiences like internships, career fairs and class projects that they’d want to show off to recruiters as part of their personal brand.

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more on LinkedIn in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=linkedin

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