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academic freedom

What is academic freedom?

there is too little understanding of what academic freedom means. It is not absolute and it is not the simple equivalent of “freedom of speech.” All citizens have, or should have, the latter, but only individuals who have specified educational and professional qualifications are entitled to academic freedom within universities. In the words of the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT), they are granted the “freedom to teach and discuss; freedom to carry out research and disseminate and publish the results thereof; freedom to produce and perform creative works; freedom to engage in service to the institution and the community; freedom to express one’s opinion about the institution, its administration, and the system in which one works.”

Internet freedom

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social media and freedom of speech

the use of social media, personal versus institutional, or personal in the context of an institutional repercussions, is a complex and thorny issue. How much can one criticize the institution in their personal social media? And if the institution responds, when does it become silencing the social media as expression of free speech?

Is the article below touching only a specific [political] issue, or academia, as an institution, goes beyond this issue in imposing on freedom of speech?

Why I Was Fired

http://chronicle.com/article/Why-I-Was-Fired/233640

My tweets might appear uncivil, but such a judgment can’t be made in an ideological or rhetorical vacuum. Insofar as “civil” is profoundly racialized and has a long history of demanding conformity, I frequently choose incivility as a form of communication. This choice is both moral and rhetorical.

Academics are usually eager to contest censorship and deconstruct vague charges of vulgarity. When it comes to defending Israel, though, anything goes.

Students are capable of serious discussion, of formulating responses, of thinking through discomfort. They like my teaching because I refuse to infantilize them; I treat them as thinking adults. My philosophy is simple: Teach them the modes and practices of critical thought and let them figure out things on their own.

Professors are often punished for disrupting convention in informal ways, however. My case is interesting because administrators ignored the de facto standards that regulate our behavior and exercised their power directly. This should be worrisome to any scholar who isn’t a sycophant.

The coming of “academic capitalism” has been anticipated and praised for years; today it is here.
Benjamin Ginsberg points out that in the past 30 years, the administrator-to-student ratio has increased while the instructor-to-student ratio has stagnated. The rise of untenured, or non-tenure-track, faculty exacerbates the problem; a significant demographic in academe lacks job security or the working conditions that allow them to maximize their pedagogical talent. Over a recent 10-year period, spending on administration outpaced spending on instruction. At American universities, there are now more administrators and their staffers than full-time faculty. In the past 10 years, administrative salaries have steadily risen while custodians and groundskeepers suffer the inevitable budget cuts — as do the students whose tuition and fees supplement this largess.

When so much money is at stake, those who raid the budget have a deep interest in maintaining the reputation of the institution. Their privilege and the condition of the brand are causally related. The brand thus predominates. Its predominance often arrives at the expense of student well-being.

critical thinking is a terribly undesirable quality in the corporate world, much more damning than selfishness or sycophancy. Let us then be honest about critical thinking: On the tongues of cunning bureaucrats, it is little more than an additive to brand equity, the vainglorious pomp of smug, uptight automatons who like to use buzzwords in their PowerPoint presentations.

Critical thinking by faculty is even more undesirable. In research institutions, we are paid to generate prestige and to amass grant money; in teaching-centered colleges, we enjoy excess enrollments according to fine-tuned equations that maximize the student-teacher ratio. (In elite liberal-arts colleges, we pamper the kids with simulations of parental affection.) Critical thinking is especially harmful to adjuncts, reliant as they are for income on the munificence of well-paid bosses who cultivate a distended assemblage of expendable employees.

more on social media in this IMS blog:

http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/?s=social+media&submit=Search

Slavenka Drakulic and Yugoslavia

DRAKULIĆ, S. (2017, October 19). Tackling the virus of nationalism. Retrieved October 30, 2017, from http://www.eurozine.com/tackling-the-virus-of-nationalism/
Drakulić, S. (2017, October 10). La gran cronista de los Balcanes: El virus del nacionalismo ha despertado en España. Noticias de Mundo. Retrieved October 30, 2017, from https://www.elconfidencial.com/mundo/2017-10-08/independencia-catalana-nacionalismo-balcanes-espana_1457330/

More from Drakulic:

DRAKULIC, S. (2009). The Generation That Failed. Nation289(16), 16-17.

http://login.libproxy.stcloudstate.edu/login?qurl=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.ebscohost.com%2flogin.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26db%3daph%26AN%3d44864523%26site%3dehost-live%26scope%3dsite

Slavenka describec what the East Germans called Die Quall der Wahl

When communism fell, Poland had Solidarity and Lech Walesa, Czechoslovakia had Václav Havel, Hungary had Fidesz, Bulgaria had Zhelyu Zhelev—and Yugoslavia had no democratic opposition at all. My note: Little she knew about the Bulgarian Opposition

A few years before the breakup of Yugoslavia, the political landscape was already filled with communists-turnednationalists (like Slobodan Milosevic and Franjo Tudjman). Nationalism became the only political “alter native” in Yugoslavia, leading us directly to wars in Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo.

Yes, my generation lived too well, and obviously we mistook freedom and democracy for the freedom of shopping in the West. And as in a medieval morality play, we had to pay for that in the three wars to follow: our children fought those wars; they were killed, and their limbs were severed.

Drakulic, S. (2011). Serbia’s War Criminal. Nation292(25), 8. http://login.libproxy.stcloudstate.edu/login?qurl=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.ebscohost.com%2flogin.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26db%3daph%26AN%3d61138708%26site%3dehost-live%26scope%3dsite

Slavenka, D. (2008). Seduced by power and vanity. Toronto Star (Canada).

http://login.libproxy.stcloudstate.edu/login?qurl=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.ebscohost.com%2flogin.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26db%3drps%26AN%3d6FP2091659851%26site%3dehost-live%26scope%3dsite

 

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more on history in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=history

flipped classroom without technology

The Technology-Free Approach to Flipping the Classroom

Wednesday, September 13, 2017 | 1:00 PM Central | 60 Minutes

https://www.magnapubs.com/online-seminars/the-technology-free-approach-to-flipping-the-classroom-14539-1.html

Active learning techniques have been shown to improve the classroom experience, leading to higher student success rates and greater student engagement.

As an increasing number of higher education faculty apply the flipped classroom model to their courses, they’re discovering that although the idea of a flip is straightforward, the model is easy to get wrong.

BENEFITS

The flipped model puts greater responsibility for learning on the students while providing them with more room to experiment in the classroom. This leads to a shift in priorities, allowing classroom time to move from merely covering material to working toward mastery of it.

As a result of this presentation, you gain a new perspective on what it means to flip the classroom, leading to revitalized teaching. This seminar not only explores concrete strategies for engaging students in the flipped classroom, but it also delves into why technology-free approaches are important. You will better understand how to do the following:

  • Organize student-led activities to encourage greater communication in the classroom
  • Create a dynamic session devoted to learning through hands-on work
  • Integrate unplugged methods of student engagement into flipped and active classroom learning environments
  • Lean on tools such as sticky notes, flip charts, whiteboards, and dice to inspire new ways of thinking

LEARNING GOALS

The flipped classroom model challenges instructors to create learning experiences in which students have the freedom to apply, analyze, and evaluate course content during class time.

The question is: How do you continue finding innovative teaching strategies and tools to engage students in this way?

Although some creativity is required to plan a flip, the process doesn’t have to be intimidating. This seminar demonstrates a number of simple strategies that motivate students to interact with the material and engage with one another. You will learn the following:

  • Discover a range of “unplugged” teaching strategies used to engage students
  • Learn to identify opportunities for unplugging devices and creating a tech-free learning experience in the classroom
  • Master simple ways to integrate unplugged flipped methods into your course
  • Understand the benefits to including unplugged teaching and learning strategies in flipped course design

TOPICS COVERED

  • Developing new strategies and ideas for the flipped classroom
  • Increasing student engagement with unplugged methods
  • Integrating unplugged methods into flipped and active learning classrooms
  • Using everyday tools to inspire higher-level thinking
  • Expanding the definition of the flipped classroom

AUDIENCE

This seminar is intended for faculty and instructors interested in a role change in the classroom. The flipped learning environment requires teachers to give up their front-of-class position in favor of a more collaborative and cooperative contribution to the teaching process. Are you ready to make a change?

Presenter: https://www.magnapubs.com/bios/barbi-honeycutt-850.html

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more on flipped classroom in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=flipped

VR and ER tech developments

A New World: VR and AR Tech Developments

Authors: by Emory Craig and Maya Georgieva Monday, July 17, 2017

http://er.educause.edu/blogs/2017/7/a-new-world-vr-and-ar-tech-developments

device available on campus

We’re now seeing a move toward mid-range, standalone VR headsets with everything built into the device. Some include their own processors, while others, like the forthcoming Microsoft headset, will work with current desktops. Microsoft’s device claims to do both VR and a modified version of mixed reality

The low end of the VR spectrum has been dominated by Google Cardboard, with over 10 million distributed

headsets

Augmented Reality

AR burst into the public’s consciousness with the Pokemon Go craze in 2016. And Snap (formerly Snapchat) expanded the range of their social media platform with the release of Spectacles, their wearable glasses and World Lens filters that add digital objects to your environment. A second version of Spectacles may include far more extensive AR capabilities.

At Facebook’s spring F8 conference, Mark Zuckerberg made the case that our mobile cameras will be the first popular AR platform. Apple just announced ARKit for iOS at their June WWDC developers conference.

Mixed Reality

Meta Glasses has been developing its own mixed reality unit that offers a wider field of view than the 40° of HoloLens. And Intel’s Project Alloy promises a “Merged Reality” headset prototype combining both VR and AR by the end of this year.

Kickstarter Projects

Aryzon which is creating a Google Cardboard-like device for simple AR experiences. Another is the NOLO Project, which offers an HTC Vive-like experience with full freedom of movement using only a plastic headset and your phone.

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Google Glass 2.0
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2017/07/19/google-brings-back-much-maligned-google-glass-headset/

https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/nevkgb/google-glass-adopters-on-glass-enterprise

https://www.wired.com/story/google-glass-2-is-here/

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Top 5 Vendors in Global AR Education Market

https://thejournal.com/articles/2017/07/14/report-top-5-vendors-in-global-ar-education-market.aspx

Market research firm Technavio has identified the top five vendors in the global augmented reality (AR) in education market. The companies are EON Reality, DAQRI, GAMOOZ, Magic Leap and QuiverVision, according to a newly published report.

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more on VR in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=virtual+reality

Privacy & Security in Today’s Library

Privacy & Security in Today’s Library by Amigos Library Services

The virtuality of privacy and security on the from Plamen Miltenoff

From: Jodie Borgerding [mailto:Borgerding@amigos.org]
Sent: Wednesday, July 05, 2017 3:07 PM
To: Miltenoff, Plamen <pmiltenoff@stcloudstate.edu>
Cc: Nicole Walsh <WALSH@AMIGOS.ORG>
Subject: Proposal Submission for Privacy & Security Conference

Hi Plamen,

Thank you for your recent presentation proposal for the online conference, Privacy & Security in Today’s Library, presented by Amigos Library Services. Your proposal, The role of the library in teaching with technology unsupported by campus IT: the privacy and security issues of the “third-party,” has been accepted. I just wanted to confirm that you are still available to present on September 21, 2017 and if you have a time preference for your presentation (11 am, 12 pm, or 2 pm Central). If you are no longer able to participate, please let me know.

Nicole will be touch with you shortly with additional details and a speaker’s agreement.

Please let me know if you have any questions.

Thanks!
___________________

Jodie Borgerding Consulting & Education Services Manager Amigos Library Services 1190 Meramec Station Road, Suite 207 | Ballwin, MO  63021-6902 800-843-8482 x2897 | 972-340-2897(direct) http://www.amigos.org | borgerding@amigos.org

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Bio

Dr. Plamen Miltenoff is an Information Specialist and Professor at St. Cloud State University. His education includes several graduate degrees in history and Library and Information Science and terminal degrees in education and psychology.

His professional interests encompass social media, multimedia, Web development and design, gaming and gamification, and learning environments (LEs).

Dr. Miltenoff organized and taught classes such as LIB 290 “Social Media in Global Context” (http://web.stcloudstate.edu/pmiltenoff/lib290/) and LIB 490/590 “Digital Storytelling” (http://web.stcloudstate.edu/pmiltenoff/lib490/) where issues of privacy and security are discussed.

Twitter handle @SCSUtechinstruc

Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/InforMediaServices/

The virtuality of privacy and security on the modern campus:

The role of the library in teaching with technology unsupported by campus IT: the privacy and security issues of the “third-party software” teaching and learning

Abstract/Summary of Your Proposed Session

The virtualization reality changes rapidly all aspects of learning and teaching: from equipment to methodology, just when faculty have finalized their syllabus, they have to start a new, if they want to keep abreast with content changes and upgrades and engagement of a very different student fabric – Millennials.

Mainframes are replaced by microcomputers, microcomputers by smart phones and tablets, hard drives by cloud storage and wearables by IoT. The pace of hardware, software and application upgrade is becoming unbearable for students and faculty. Content creation and methodology becomes useless by the speed of becoming obsolete. In such environment, faculty students and IT staff barely can devote time and energy to deal with the rapidly increasing vulnerability connected with privacy and security.

In an effort to streamline ever-becoming-scarce resources, campus IT “standardizes” campus use of applications. Those are the applications, which IT chooses to troubleshoot campus-wide. Those are the applications recommended to faculty and students to use.

In an unprecedented burgeoning amount of applications, specifically for mobile devices, it is difficult to constraint faculty and students to use campus IT sanctioned applications, especially considering the rapid pace of such applications becoming obsolete. Faculty and students often “stray” away and go with their own choice. Such decision exposes faculty and students, personally, and the campus, institutionally, at risk. In a recent post by THE Journal, attention on campuses is drown to the fact that cyberattacks shift now from mobile devices to IoT and campus often are struggling even with their capability to guarantee cybersecurity of mobile devices on campus. Further, the use of third-party application might be in conflict with the FERPA campus-mandated policies. Such policies are lengthy and complex to absorb, both by faculty and students and often are excessively restrictive in terms of innovative ways to improve methodology and pedagogy of teaching and learning. The current procedure of faculty and students proposing new applications is a lengthy and cumbersome bureaucratic process, which often render the end-users’ proposals obsolete by the time the process is vetted.

Where/what is the balance between safeguarding privacy on campus and fostering security without stifling innovation and creativity? Can the library be the campus hub for education about privacy and security, the sandbox for testing and innovation and the body to expedite decision-making?

Abstract

The pace of changes in teaching and learning is becoming impossible to sustain: equipment evolves in accelerated pace, the methodology of teaching and learning cannot catch up with the equipment changes and atop, there are constant content updates. In an even-shrinking budget, faculty, students and IT staff barely can address the issues above, less time and energy left to address the increasing concerns about privacy and security.

In an unprecedented burgeoning amount of applications, specifically for mobile devices, it is difficult to constraint faculty and students to use campus IT sanctioned applications, especially considering the rapid pace of such applications becoming obsolete. Faculty and students often “stray” away and go with their own choice. Such decision exposes faculty and students, personally, and the campus, institutionally, at risk. In a recent post by THE Journal (http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2017/06/06/cybersecurity-and-students/), attention on campuses is drawn to the fact of cyberattacks shifting from mobile devices to IoT but campus still struggling to guarantee cybersecurity of mobile devices on campus. Further, the use of third-party applications might be in conflict with the FERPA campus-mandated policies. Such policies are lengthy and complex to absorb, both by faculty and students and often are excessively restrictive in terms of innovative ways to improve methodology and pedagogy of teaching and learning. The current procedure of faculty and students proposing new applications is a lengthy and cumbersome bureaucratic process, which often render the end-users’ proposals obsolete by the time the process is vetted.

Where/what is the balance between safeguarding privacy on campus and fostering security without stifling innovation and creativity? Can the library be the campus hub for education about privacy and security, the sandbox for testing and innovation and the body to expedite decision-making?

http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2017/06/06/cybersecurity-and-students/

Anything else you would like to add

3 take-aways from this session:

  • Discuss and form an opinion about the education-pertinent issues of privacy and security from the broad campus perspective, versus the narrow library one
  • Discuss and form an opinion about the role of the library on campus in terms of the greater issues of privacy and security

Re-examine the thin red line of the balance between standardization and innovation; between the need for security and privacy protection a

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presentation:
https://www.slideshare.net/aidemoreto/the-virtuality-of-privacy-and-security-on-the 

chat – slide 4, privacy. please take 2 min and share your definition of privacy on campus. Does it differ between faculty and students?  what are the main characteristics to determine privacy

chat – slide 5, security. please take 2 min and share your definition of security on campus regarding electronic activities. Who’s responsibility is security? IT issue [only]?

poles: slide 6, technology unsupported by campus IT, is it worth considering? 1. i am a great believer in my freedom of choice 2. I firmly follow rules and this applies to the use of computer tools and applications 3. Whatever…

chat –  slide 6, why third party applications? pros and cons. E.g. pros – familiarity with third party versus campus-required

pole, slide 6, appsmashing. App smashing is the ability to combine mobile apps in your teaching process. How do you feel about it? 1. The force is with us 2. Nonsense…

pole slide 7 third party apps and the comfort of faculty. How do you see the freedom of using third party apps? 1. All I want, thank you 2. I would rather follow the rules 3. Indifference is my middle name

pole slide 8 Technology standardization? 1. yes, 2. no, 3. indifferent

chat slide 9 if the two major issues colliding in this instance are: standardization versus third party and they have impact on privacy and security, how would you argue for the one or the other?

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notes from the conference

 

 

Measuring Library Vendor Cyber Security: Seven Easy Questions Every Librarian Can Ask

http://journal.code4lib.org/articles/11413

Bill Walker: http://www.amigos.org/innovating_metadata

 

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more on security in education in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=security

more on privacy in education in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=privacy

VR trends

6 VR Trends to Watch in Education

By Sri Ravipati  05/16/17

https://campustechnology.com/articles/2017/05/16/6-vr-trends-to-watch-in-education.aspx

VR devices are expected to increase 85 percent by 2020, with gaming and educational applications driving most of that growth.

Maya Georgieva, an ed tech strategist, author and speaker with more than 15 years of experience in higher education and global education. Georgieva is co-founder of Digital Bodies, a consulting group that provides news and analysis of VR, AR and wearables in education

Emory Craig,  currently the director of e-learning at the College of New Rochelle,

six areas with promising developments for educators.

1) More Affordable Headsets

the Oculus Rift or HTC Vive, which I really like, you’re talking close to $2,000 per setup. the 2017 SXSWedu conference,

Microsoft has been collaborating with its partners, such as HP, Acer, Dell and Lenovo, to develop VR headsets that will work with lower-end desktops. Later this year, the companies will debut headsets for $299, “which is much more affordable compared to HoloLens

many Kickstarter crowdfunding efforts are bound to make high-end headsets more accessible for teaching.

the NOLO project. The NOLO system is meant for mobile VR headsets and gives users that “6 degrees of freedom” (or 6 DoF) motion tracking that is currently only found in high-end headsets.

2) Hand Controllers That Will Bring Increased Interactivity

Google Daydream  Samsung has also implemented its own hand controller for Gear VR

Microsoft  new motion controllers at Microsoft Build

zSpace, with their stylus and AR glasses, continue to develop their immersive applications

3) Easy-to-Use Content Creation Platforms

Game engines like Unity and Unreal are often a starting point for creating simulations.

Labster, which creates virtual chemistry labs — will become important in specialized subjects

ThingLink, for example, recently introduced a school-specific editor for creating 360-degree and VR content. Lifeliqe, Aurasma and Adobe are also working on more interactive tools.

5) 360-Degree Cameras

6) Social VR Spaces

AltspaceVR h uses avatars and supports multiplayer sessions that allow for socialization and user interaction.

Facebook has been continuing to develop its own VR platform, Facebook Spaces, which is in beta and will be out later this year. LectureVR is a similar platform on the horizon.

 

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more on augmented reality in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=augmented

Virtual Augmented Mixed Reality

11 Ed Tech Trends to Watch in 2017
Five higher ed leaders analyze the hottest trends in education technology this year.

http://pdf.101com.com/CampusTech/2017/701921020/CAM_1702DG.pdf

new forms of human-computer interaction (HCI) such as augmented reality (AR),virtual reality (VR) and mixed reality (MR).
p. 21
combining AR/VR/MR with cognitive computing and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies (such as machine learning, deep learning, natural language processing and chatbots).
Some thought-provoking questions include:
  • Will remote workers be able to be seen and interacted with via their holograms (i.e., attending their meetings virtually)? What would this mean for remote learners?
  • Will our smartphones increasingly allow us to see information overlaid on the real world? (Think Pokémon Go, but putting that sort of technology into a vast array of different applications, many of which could be educational in nature)
  • How do/will these new forms of HCI impact how we design our learning spaces?
  • Will students be able to pick their preferred learning setting (i.e., studying by a brook or stream or in a virtual Starbucks-like atmosphere)?
  • Will more devices/platforms be developed that combine the power of AI with VR/AR/MR-related experiences? For example, will students be able to issue a verbal question or command to be able to see and experience walking around ancient Rome?
  • Will there be many new types of learning experiences,like what Microsoft was able to achieve in its collaboration with Case Western Reserve University [OH]? Its HoloLens product transforms the way human anatomy can be taught.

p. 22 Extensive costs for VR design and development drive the need for collaborative efforts.

Case Western Reserve University, demonstrates a collaboration with the Cleveland Clinic and Microsoft to create active multi-dimensional learning using holography.

the development of more affordable high-quality virtual reality solutions.

AR game developed by the Salzburg University of Applied Sciences [Austria] (http://www.fh-salzburg.ac.at/en/) that teaches  about sustainability, the environment and living green.
Whether using AR for a gamified course or to acclimate new students to campus, the trend will continue into 2017.

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15 Tech Tool Favorites From ISTE 2016

list of resources that can help educators find what they need

Google Expeditions
This virtual reality field trip tool works in conjunction with Google Cardboard and has just been officially released. The app allows teachers to guide students through an exploration of 200 (and growing) historical sites and natural resources in an immersive, three-dimensional experience. The app only works on Android devices and is free.

Flippity
This app works in conjunction with Google Sheets and allows teachers to easily make a Jeopardy-style game.

Google Science Journal
This Android app allows users to do science experiments with mobile phones. Students can use sensors in the phone or connect external sensors to collect data, but can also take notes on observations, analyze and annotate within the app.

Google Cast
This simple app solves issues of disparate devices in the classroom. When students download the app, they can project from their devices onto the screen at the front of the room easily. “You don’t have to have specific hardware, you just have to have Wi-Fi,”

Constitute
This site hosts a database of constitutions from around the world. Anything digitally available has been aggregated here. It is searchable by topic and will pull out specific excerpts related to search terms like “freedom of speech.”

YouTube
a database of YouTube Channels by subject to help educators with discoverability (hint subjects are by tab along the bottom of the document).

Zygote Body
This freemium tool has a lot of functionality in the free version, allowing students to view different parts of human anatomy and dig into how various body systems work.
Pixlr
This app has less power than Photoshop, but is free and fairly sophisticated. It works directly with Google accounts, so students can store files there.
uild With Chrome
This extension to the Chrome browser lets kids play with digital blocks like Legos. Based on the computer’s IP address, the software assigns users a plot of land on which to build nearby. There’s a Build Academy to learn how to use the various tools within the program, but then students can make whatever they want.
Google CS First
Built on Scratch’s programming language, this easy tool gives step-by-step instructions to get started and is great for the hesitant teacher who is just beginning to dip a toe into coding.
several posters about Google Apps For Education that are available to anyone for free

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More on VR in this IMS bloghttp://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=virtual+reality

tech in China

The uncomfortable truth about tech in China

By Steve Kelman https://fcw.com/blogs/lectern/2017/02/kelman-china-innovation.aspx

Only recently, the general view in the U.S. was that the less-free Chinese system created a poor environment for tech innovation. Put somewhat simply, the argument was that in a society without our kind of freedom of speech or unrestricted access to communication such as the Internet, people would miss out on information and ideas that come from a free system and feel more psychologically constrained from venturing off the beaten path with innovative ideas. The Chinese would be limited, in this view, to knock-offs of U.S. technologies.

The government has also cracked down on use of virtual private networks that Chinese, especially young people, have used to “climb the wall” (i.e. find sites outside the “Great Firewall of China”). And recently, there were media complaints that at the top elite universities such as Tsinghua the anti-VPN policy was not being enforced strictly enough.

Clearly, though, Chinese progress has taken place despite these restrictions.

we should not naively assume that all good (or bad) things go together. Maybe freedom of political and cultural expression is not as important as we have thought for advances, say, in information technology. But it still might be more important for development of less technical or scientific ideas such as public policy proposals or cultural expressions.

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more on virtual networks for civic activities
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2014/09/30/disruptive-technologies-from-swarming-to-mesh-networking/

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