Searching for "intelligence"

Algorithmic Test Proctoring

Our Bodies Encoded: Algorithmic Test Proctoring in Higher Education

SHEA SWAUGER ED-TECH

https://hybridpedagogy.org/our-bodies-encoded-algorithmic-test-proctoring-in-higher-education/

While in-person test proctoring has been used to combat test-based cheating, this can be difficult to translate to online courses. Ed-tech companies have sought to address this concern by offering to watch students take online tests, in real time, through their webcams.

Some of the more prominent companies offering these services include ProctorioRespondusProctorUHonorLockKryterion Global Testing Solutions, and Examity.

Algorithmic test proctoring’s settings have discriminatory consequences across multiple identities and serious privacy implications. 

While racist technology calibrated for white skin isn’t new (everything from photography to soap dispensers do this), we see it deployed through face detection and facial recognition used by algorithmic proctoring systems.

While some test proctoring companies develop their own facial recognition software, most purchase software developed by other companies, but these technologies generally function similarly and have shown a consistent inability to identify people with darker skin or even tell the difference between Chinese people. Facial recognition literally encodes the invisibility of Black people and the racist stereotype that all Asian people look the same.

As Os Keyes has demonstrated, facial recognition has a terrible history with gender. This means that a software asking students to verify their identity is compromising for students who identify as trans, non-binary, or express their gender in ways counter to cis/heteronormativity.

These features and settings create a system of asymmetric surveillance and lack of accountability, things which have always created a risk for abuse and sexual harassment. Technologies like these have a long history of being abused, largely by heterosexual men at the expense of women’s bodies, privacy, and dignity.

Their promotional messaging functions similarly to dog whistle politics which is commonly used in anti-immigration rhetoric. It’s also not a coincidence that these technologies are being used to exclude people not wanted by an institution; biometrics and facial recognition have been connected to anti-immigration policies, supported by both Republican and Democratic administrations, going back to the 1990’s.

Borrowing from Henry A. Giroux, Kevin Seeber describes the pedagogy of punishment and some of its consequences in regards to higher education’s approach to plagiarism in his book chapter “The Failed Pedagogy of Punishment: Moving Discussions of Plagiarism beyond Detection and Discipline.”

my note: I am repeating this for years
Sean Michael Morris and Jesse Stommel’s ongoing critique of Turnitin, a plagiarism detection software, outlines exactly how this logic operates in ed-tech and higher education: 1) don’t trust students, 2) surveil them, 3) ignore the complexity of writing and citation, and 4) monetize the data.

Technological Solutionism

Cheating is not a technological problem, but a social and pedagogical problem.
Our habit of believing that technology will solve pedagogical problems is endemic to narratives produced by the ed-tech community and, as Audrey Watters writes, is tied to the Silicon Valley culture that often funds it. Scholars have been dismantling the narrative of technological solutionism and neutrality for some time now. In her book “Algorithms of Oppression,” Safiya Umoja Noble demonstrates how the algorithms that are responsible for Google Search amplify and “reinforce oppressive social relationships and enact new modes of racial profiling.”

Anna Lauren Hoffmann, who coined the term “data violence” to describe the impact harmful technological systems have on people and how these systems retain the appearance of objectivity despite the disproportionate harm they inflict on marginalized communities.

This system of measuring bodies and behaviors, associating certain bodies and behaviors with desirability and others with inferiority, engages in what Lennard J. Davis calls the Eugenic Gaze.

Higher education is deeply complicit in the eugenics movement. Nazism borrowed many of its ideas about racial purity from the American school of eugenics, and universities were instrumental in supporting eugenics research by publishing copious literature on it, establishing endowed professorships, institutes, and scholarly societies that spearheaded eugenic research and propaganda.

+++++++++++++++++
more on privacy in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=privacy

Western Balkans Information & Media Literacy Conference

Western Balkans Information & Media Literacy Conference

organized by LIT Limerick Institute of Technology, Ireland; Bihac, Bosnia

Conference main themes and topics https://www.wbimlc.org/topics

Information Literacy in the modern world

  • From Information Literacy to Digital Scholarship

  • Fake News and Information Literacy

  • Information literacies (media literacy, Research Literacy, digital literacy, visual literacy, financial literacy, health literacy, cyber wellness, infographics, information behavior, trans-literacy, post-literacy)

  • Information Literacy and academic libraries

  • Information Literacy and adult education

  • Information Literacy and blended learning

  • Information Literacy and distance learning

  • Information Literacy and mobile devices

  • Information Literacy and Gamification

  • Information Literacy and public libraries

  • Information Literacy in Primary and Secondary Schools

  • Information Literacy and the Knowledge Economy

  • Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning

  • Information Literacy and the Information Society

  • Information Literacy and the Multimedia Society

  • Information Literacy and the Digital Society

  • Information Literacy in the modern world (e.g trends, emerging technologies and innovation, growth of digital resources, digital reference tools, reference services).

  • The future of Information Literacy

  • Workplace Information Literacy

Librarians as support to the lifelong learning process

  • Digital literacy, Digital Citizenship

  • Digital pedagogy and Information Literacy

  • Information Literacy Needs in the Electronic Resource Environment

  • Integrating Information Literacy into the curriculum

  • Putting Information Literacy theory into practice

  • Information Literacy training and instruction

  • Instructional design and performance for Information Literacy (e.g. teaching practice, session design, lesson plans)

  •  Information Literacy and online learning (e.g. self-paced IL modules, online courses, Library Guides)

  • Information Literacy and Virtual Learning Environments

  • Supporting users need through library 2.0 and beyond

  • Digital empowerment and reference work

  • Information Literacy across the disciplines

  • Information Literacy and digital preservation

  • Innovative IL approaches

  • Student engagement with Information Literacy

  • Action Literacy

  • Information Literacy, Copyright and Intellectual Property

  • Information Literacy and Academic Writing

Media and Information Literacy – theoretical approaches (standards, assessment, collaboration, etc.)

  • The Digital Competence Framework 2.0

  • Information Literacy theory (models, standards, indicators, Moscow Declaration etc.)

  • Information Literacy and Artificial intelligence

  • Information Literacy and information behavior

  • Information Literacy and reference services: cyber reference services, virtual reference services, mobile reference services

  • Information Literacy cultural and contextual approaches

  • Information Literacy and Threshold concepts

  • Information Literacy evaluation and assessment

  • Information Literacy in different cultures and countries including national studies

  • Information Literacy project management

  • Measuring in Information Literacy instruction assessment

New aspects of education/strategic planning, policy, and advocacy for Information Literacy in a digital age

  • Information Literacy and the Digital Divide

  • Policy and Planning for Information Literacy

  • Branding, promotion and marketing for Information Literacy

  • Cross –sectorial; and interdisciplinary collaboration and partnerships for Information Literacy

  • Leadership and Governance for Information Literacy

  • Strategic planning for IL

  • Strategies in e-learning to promote self-directed and sustainable learning in the area of Information Literacy skills.

algorithm literacy

Report: Colleges Must Teach ‘Algorithm Literacy’ to Help Students Navigate Internet

By Rebecca Koenig     Jan 16, 2020

https://www.edsurge.com/news/2020-01-16-report-colleges-must-teach-algorithm-literacy-to-help-students-navigate-internet

Project Information Literacy, a nonprofit research institution that explores how college students find, evaluate and use information. It was commissioned by the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation and The Harvard Graduate School of Education.

focus groups and interviews with 103 undergraduates and 37 faculty members from eight U.S. colleges.

To better equip students for the modern information environment, the report recommends that faculty teach algorithm literacy in their classrooms. And given students’ reliance on learning from their peers when it comes to technology, the authors also suggest that students help co-design these learning experiences.

Algorithms and Media Literacy

While informed and critically aware media users may see past the resulting content found in suggestions provided after conducting a search on YouTube, Facebook, or Google, those without these skills, particularly young or inexperienced users, fail to realize the culpability of underlying algorithms in the resultant filter bubbles and echo chambers (Cohen, 2018).
Media literacy education is more important than ever. It’s not just the overwhelming calls to understand the effects of fake news or addressing data breaches threatening personal information, it is the artificial intelligence systems being designed to predict and project what is perceived to be what consumers of social media want.
it’s time to revisit the Eight Key Concepts of media literacy with an algorithmic focus.
Literacy in today’s online and offline environments “means being able to use the dominant symbol systems of the culture for personal, aesthetic, cultural, social, and political goals” (Hobbs & Jensen, 2018, p 4).

+++++++++++++++++++

++++++++++++++++++++

Information Literacy in an Age of Algorithms from Kristen Yarmey

++++++++++++++++++++

Artificial Intelligence Literacy from Rogelio E. Cardona-Rivera

+++++++++++++
more on media literacy in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=media+literacy

more on news literacy in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=news+literate

smart anonymization

This startup claims its deepfakes will protect your privacy

But some experts say that D-ID’s “smart video anonymization” technique breaks the law.

https://www.technologyreview.com/s/614983/this-startup-claims-its-deepfakes-will-protect-your-privacy/

The upside for businesses is that this new, “anonymized” video no longer gives away the exact identity of a customer—which, Perry says, means companies using D-ID can “eliminate the need for consent” and analyze the footage for business and marketing purposes. A store might, for example, feed video of a happy-looking white woman to an algorithm that can surface the most effective ad for her in real time.

Three leading European privacy experts who spoke to MIT Technology Review voiced their concerns about D-ID’s technology and its intentions. All say that, in their opinion, D-ID actually violates GDPR.

Surveillance is becoming more and more widespread. A recent Pew study found that most Americans think they’re constantly being tracked but can’t do much about it, and the facial recognition market is expected to grow from around $4.5 billion in 2018 to $9 billion by 2024. Still, the reality of surveillance isn’t keeping activists from fighting back.

++++++++++++
more on deep fake in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=deep+fake

PISA Estonia China US

+++++++++++++++++++++

https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/12/17/chinas-education-system-produces-stellar-test-scores-so-why-do-students-head-abroad-each-year-study/

Education scholars have already critiqued PISA as a valid global measure of education quality — but analysts also are skeptical about the selective participation of Chinese students from wealthier schools.

Second, Chinese students, on average, study 55 hours a week — also No. 1 among PISA-participating countries. This was about 20 hours more than students in Finland, the country that PISA declared to have the highest learning efficiency, or reading-test-score points per hour spent studying.

But PISA analysis also revealed that Chinese students are among the least satisfied with their lives.

Students look overseas for a more well-rounded education

Their top destination of choice, by far, is the United States. The 1.1 million or so foreign students in the United States in 2018 included 369,500 Chinese college students

hostility in U.S.-China relations could dampen the appeal of a U.S. education. Britain, in fact, recorded a 30 percent surge in Chinese applicants in 2019, challenging the U.S. global dominance in higher education.

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2019/12/03/us-students-gain-ground-against-global-peers.html

Immigrant students, who made up 23 percent of all U.S. students taking PISA, performed significantly better compared to their native-born peers in the United States than they did on average throughout the OECD countries.

https://www.msn.com/en-us/finance/news/pisa-rankings-2019-four-chinese-regions-top-international-student-survey/ar-BBXGCZU

The survey found that 15-year-old students from Beijing, Shanghai, and the eastern provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang ranked top for all three core subjects, achieving the highest level 4 rating.

Students from the United States were ranked level 3 for reading and science, and level 2 for math, while teens from Britain scored a level 3 ranking in all three categories.

++++++++++++++++

Looking for Post-PISA Answers? Here’s What Our Obsession With Test Scores Overlooks

https://www.edsurge.com/news/2019-12-03-looking-for-post-pisa-answers-here-s-what-our-obsession-with-test-scores-overlooks

By Tony Wan     Dec 3, 2019

Andreas Schelicher, director of education and skills at the OECD—the Paris-based organization behind PISA wrote that “students who disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement ‘Your intelligence is something about you that you can’t change very much’ scored 32 points higher in reading than students who agreed or strongly agreed.”

Those results are similar to recent findings published by Carol Dweck, a Stanford education professor who is often credited with making growth mindset a mainstream concept.

“Growth mindset is a very important thing that makes us active learners, and makes us invest in our personal education,” Schleicher states. “If learning isn’t based on effort and intelligence is predetermined, why would anyone bother?”

It’s “absolutely fascinating” to see the relationship between teachers’ enthusiasm, students’ social-emotional wellbeing and their learning outcomes, Schleicher notes. As one example, he noted in his summary report that “in most countries and economies, students scored higher in reading when they perceived their teachers as more enthusiastic, especially when they said their teachers were interested in the subject.

In other words, happy teachers lead to better results. That’s hardly a surprising revelation, says Scheleicher. But professional development support is one thing that can sometimes be overlooked by policymakers when so much of the focus is on test scores.

+++++++++++++++++

https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/
+++++++++++


+++++++++++
more on Estonia in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=estonia

Virtual Reality and artists

https://www.edsurge.com/news/2019-10-31-virtual-reality-experiences-can-be-violent-and-intrusive-they-need-an-artist-s-touch

Blended Reality, a cross-curricular applied research program through which they create interactive experiences using virtual reality, augmented reality and 3D printing tools. Yale is one of about 20 colleges participating in the HP/Educause Campus of the Future project investigating the use of this technology in higher education.

Interdisciplinary student and professor teams at Yale have developed projects that include using motion capture and artificial intelligence to generate dance choreography, converting museum exhibits into detailed digital replicas, and making an app that uses augmented reality to simulate injuries on the mannequins medical students use for training.

The perspectives and skills of art and humanities students have been critical to the success of these efforts, says Justin Berry, faculty member at the Yale Center for Collaborative Arts and Media and principal investigator for the HP Blended Reality grant.

+++++++++++++
more on VR in this iMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=virtual+reality

AI and XR and Educational Gaming

AI and Mixed Reality Drive Educational Gaming into ‘Boom Phase’

By Dian Schaffhauser 09/16/19

https://campustechnology.com/articles/2019/09/16/ai-and-mixed-reality-drive-educational-gaming-into-boom-phase.aspx

Artificial intelligence and mixed reality have driven demand in learning games around the world, according to a new report by Metaari. A five-year forecast has predicted that educational gaming will reach $24 billion by 2024, with a compound annual growth rate of 33 percent and a quadrupling of revenues. Metaari is an analyst firm that tracks advanced learning technology.

virtual design

 

View this post on Instagram

 

Virtual design👍🏻 . By @nickpbaker . . . . #augmentedreality #hololens #magicleap #art🎨 #arkit #arcore #vr #startup #technology #hogwarts #mixedreality #holographic #hologram #дополненнаяреальность #virtualreality #future #mixedreality #computergraphics #3d #iphonex #mixarofficial #виртуальнаяреальность #computervision #ai #artificial_intelligence

A post shared by Augmented / Virtual Reality (@augmented_virtual_reality) on

illusory truth effect

When False Claims Are Repeated, We Start To Believe They Are True

When False Claims Are Repeated, We Start To Believe They Are True — Here’s How Behaving Like A Fact-Checker Can Help

September 12, 2019

This phenomenon, known as the “illusory truth effect”, is exploited by politicians and advertisers — and if you think you are immune to it, you’re probably wrong. In fact, earlier this year we reported on a study that found people are prone to the effect regardless of their particular cognitive profile.

study in Cognition has found that using our own knowledge to fact-check a false claim can prevent us from believing it is true when it is later repeated. But we might need a bit of a nudge to get there.

The researchers found that participants who had focussed on how interesting the statements were in the first part of the study showed the illusory truth effect

++++++++++++++
more on Fake News in this IMS blog

1 2 3 4 12