The purpose of media literacy education is to help individuals of all ages develop the habits of inquiry and skills of expression that they need to be critical thinkers, effective communicators and active citizens in today’s world.
1. Media Literacy Education requires active inquiry and critical thinking about the messages
we receive and create.
2. Media Literacy Education expands the concept of literacy (i.e., reading and writing) to
include all forms of media.
3. Media Literacy Education builds and reinforces skills for learners of all ages. Like print
literacy, those skills necessitate integrated, interactive, and repeated practice.
4. Media Literacy Education develops informed, reflective and engaged participants essential
for a democratic society.
5. Media Literacy Education recognizes that media are a part of culture and function as
agents of socialization.
6. Media Literacy Education affirms that people use their individual skills,
Within North America, media literacy is seen to consist of a series of communication competencies, including the ability to ACCESS, ANALYZE,EVALUATE, and COMMUNICATE information in a variety of forms, including print and non-print messages.
Media literacy empowers people to be both critical thinkers and creative producers of an increasingly wide range of messages using image, language, and sound. It is the skillful application of literacy skills to media and technology messages.
On this week’s Future Trends Forum, Bryan Alexander and Jennifer Sparrow, the Senior Director of Teaching and Learning with Technology at Penn State University, will explore the significance of media and digital literacy, especially in the era of fake news.
Jennifer and Bryan will further dissect how digital literacy and fluency differ, and why this difference is important.
The term has been conceived in many different ways and across all academic departments (Mihalidis, 2008).
Media literacy is central in a broader concept of access (Sourbati, 2009).
The relationship between visual competencies and the notion of media literacy have not been fully explored or adequately specified (Griffin, 2008).
Media literacy interventions refer to education programs designed to reduce harmful effects of the media by informing the audience about one or more aspects of the media, thereby inﬂuencing media-related beliefs and attitudes, and ultimately preventing risky behaviors. Positive effects of media literacy interventions were observed across diverse agents, target age groups, settings, topics, and countries (Jeong et al, 2012).
Media literacy, information literacy and digital literacy are the three most prevailing concepts that focus on a critical approach towards media messages
The 21st century has marked an unprecedented advancement of new media. New media has become so pervasive that it has penetrated into every aspect of our society. New media literacy plays an essential role for any citizen to participate fully in the 21st century society. Researchers have documented that literacy has evolved historically from classic literacy (reading-writing-understanding) to audiovisual literacy to digital literacy or information literacy and recently to new media literacy. A review of literature on media literacy reveals that there is a lack of thorough analysis of unique characteristics of newmedia and its impacts upon the notion of new media literacy. The purpose of the study is to unpack new media literacyand propose a framework for a systematic investigation of new media literacy
HTML is not dead. QR codes are only one new technology, which can revive it. But:
WordPress might be preferable to Adobe Dreamweaver.
PPT is not enough. Prezi does not replace it. Then what? Desktop/lpatop versus tablet (Stampsy). Or the Cloud m(VoiceThread)? Does Media skills = presentation skills?
iMovie | Movie Maker (local) versus YouTube (Cloud)
Flickr (Cloud) versus Photoshop (local).
Mihailidis, P. (2008). Are We Speaking the Same Language? Assessing the State of Media Literacy in U.S. Higher Education. Simile, 8(4), 1-14. doi:10.3138/sim.8.4.001 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=40303609
Hobbs, R. (2011). EMPOWERING LEARNERS WITH DIGITAL AND MEDIA LITERACY. Knowledge Quest, 39(5), 12-17. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=61819923
Koltay, T. (2011). The media and the literacies: media literacy, information literacy, digital literacy. Media, Culture & Society, 33(2), 211-221. doi:10.1177/0163443710393382 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=59569702
“Victor” CHEN, D., WU, J., & WANG, Y. (2011). Unpacking New Media Literacy. Journal Of Systemics, Cybernetics & Informatics, 9(2), 84-88. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=83259046
Sourbati, M. (2009). Media Literacy and Universal Access in Europe. Information Society, 25(4), 248-254. doi:10.1080/01972240903028680 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=43050924
GRIFFIN, M. (2008). Visual competence and media literacy: can one exist without the other?. Visual Studies,23(2), 113-129. doi:10.1080/14725860802276255 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=33944793
Jeong, S., Cho, H., & Hwang, Y. (2012). Media Literacy Interventions: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal Of Communication, 62(3), 454-472. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01643.x http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=76349359
Yates, B. L. (2002). Media education’s present and future: A survey of teachers. Simile, 2(3), N.PAG. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=10537377
Technology Literacy is the ability to responsibly use appropriate technology to communicate, solve problems, and access, manage, integrate, evaluate, and create information to improve learning in all subject areas and to acquire lifelong knowledge and skills in the 21st century.
Technology literacy is the ability of an individual, working independently and with others, to responsibly, appropriately and effectively use technology tools to access, manage, integrate, evaluate, create and communicate information.
“Technological Literacy is the ability to use, manage, assess, and understand technology” (Gallop Poll, 2004, p. 1). “Technological literacy encompasses three interdependent dimensions: (1) knowledge, (2) ways of thinking and acting; and (3) capabilities” (Technically Speaking, 2006, p.1).
Pérez, J., & Murray, M. (2010). Generativity: The New Frontier for Information and Communication Technology Literacy. Interdisciplinary Journal Of Information, Knowledge & Management, 5127-137. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=58079824
Eisenberg, M., Johnson, D., & Berkowitz, B. (2010). Information, Communications, and Technology (ICT) Skills Curriculum Based on the Big6 Skills Approach to Information Problem-Solving. Library Media Connection, 28(6), 24-27. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=50728714
Miners, Z., & Pascopella, A. (2007). The NEW Literacies. District Administration, 43(10), 26-34. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=27024204
NAEP Will Include Technology Literacy in 2012. (Cover story). (2008). Electronic Education Report, 15(20), 1-7. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=62828392
Heller-Ross, H. (2004). Reinforcing information and technology literacy. College & Research Libraries News, 65(6), 321-325. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=13541089
Do you have ideas and materials regarding Media and Technology Literacy and Skills? Pls contribute…
News and Media Literacy (and the lack of) is not very different from Information Literacy
An “information literate” student is able to “locate, evaluate, and effectively use information from diverse sources.” See more About Information Literacy
Developing Your Research Topic/Question
Research always starts with a question. But the success of your research also depends on how you formulate that question. If your topic is too broad or too narrow, you may have trouble finding information when you search. When developing your question/topic, consider the following:
Is my question one that is likely to have been researched and for which data have been published? Believe it or not, not every topic has been researched and/or published in the literature.
Be flexible. Consider broadening or narrowing the topic if you are getting a limited number or an overwhelming number of results when you search. In nursing it can be helpful to narrow by thinking about a specific population (gender, age, disease or condition, etc.), intervention, or outcome.
Discuss your topic with your professor and be willing to alter your topic according to the guidance you receive.
Getting Ready for Research
Library Resources vs. the Internet
How (where from) do you receive information about your professional interests?
Advantages/disadvantages of using Web Resources
Evaluating Web Resources
Google or similar; Yahoo, Bing
Reddit, Digg, Quora
Become a member of professional organizations and use their online information
Use the SCSU library page to online databases
Building Your List of Keywords
Why Keyword Searching?
Why not just type in a phrase or sentence like you do in Google or Yahoo!?
Because most electronic databases store and retrieve information differently than Internet search engines.
A databases searches fields within a collection of records. These fields include the information commonly found in a citation plus an abstract (if available) and subject headings. Search engines search web content which is typically the full text of sources.
The bottom line: you get better results in a database by using effective keyword search strategies.
To develop an effective search strategy, you need to:
determine the key concepts in your topic and
develop a good list of keyword synonyms.
Why use synonyms?
Because there is more than one way to express a concept or idea. You don’t know if the article you’re looking for uses the same expression for a key concept that you are using.
Consider: Will an author use:
Hypertension or High Blood Pressure?
Teach or Instruct?
Therapy or Treatment?
Don’t get “keyword lock!” Be willing to try a different term as a keyword. If you are having trouble thinking of synonyms, check a thesaurus, dictionary, or reference book for ideas.
How to find the SCSU Library Website
SCSU online databases
SCSU Library Web page
Test your knowledge:
******* !! *************
Basic Research Skills
Identifying a Scholarly Source
How do you evaluate a source of information to determine if it is appropriate for academic/scholarly use. There is no set “checklist” to complete but below are some criteria to consider when you are evaluating a source.
Does the author cite reliable sources?
How does the information compare with that in other works on the topic?
Can you determine if the information has gone through peer-review?
Are there factual, spelling, typographical, or grammatical errors?
Who do you think the authors are trying to reach?
Is the language, vocabulary, style and tone appropriate for intended audience?
What are the audience demographics? (age, educational level, etc.)
Are the authors targeting a particular group or segment of society?
Who wrote the information found in the article or on the site?
What are the author’s credentials/qualifications for this particular topic?
Is the author affiliated with a particular organization or institution?
What does that affiliation suggest about the author?
Is the content current?
Does the date of the information directly affect the accuracy or usefulness of the information?
What is the author’s or website’s point of view?
Is the point of view subtle or explicit?
Is the information presented as fact or opinion?
If opinion, is the opinion supported by credible data or informed argument?
Is the information one-sided?
Are alternate views represented?
Does the point of view affect how you view the information?
What is the author’s purpose or objective, to explain, provide new information or news, entertain, persuade or sell?
Does the purpose affect how you view the information presented?
Exporting bibliography records
Zotero. Zotero AddOn for Chrome and Firefox. Zotero for Microsoft Word. Zotero AddOn for Edublog.
through the Zotero AddOn for browsers
through “export RIS” file
Copyright and Fair Use
Author Rights and Publishing & Finding Author Instructions for Publishing in Scholarly Journals
Project Information Literacy, a nonprofit research institution that explores how college students find, evaluate and use information. It was commissioned by the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation and The Harvard Graduate School of Education.
focus groups and interviews with 103 undergraduates and 37 faculty members from eight U.S. colleges.
To better equip students for the modern information environment, the report recommends that faculty teach algorithm literacy in their classrooms. And given students’ reliance on learning from their peers when it comes to technology, the authors also suggest that students help co-design these learning experiences.
While informed and critically aware media users may see past the resulting content found in suggestions provided after conducting a search on YouTube, Facebook, or Google, those without these skills, particularly young or inexperienced users, fail to realize the culpability of underlying algorithms in the resultant filter bubbles and echo chambers (Cohen, 2018).
Media literacy education is more important than ever. It’s not just the overwhelming calls to understand the effects of fake news or addressing data breaches threatening personal information, it is the artificial intelligence systems being designed to predict and project what is perceived to be what consumers of social media want.
Literacy in today’s online and offline environments “means being able to use the dominant symbol systems of the culture for personal, aesthetic, cultural, social, and political goals” (Hobbs & Jensen, 2018, p 4).
Many librarians have shied away from ICT literacy, concerned that they may be asked how to format a digital document or show students how to create a formula in a spreadsheet. These technical skills focus more on a specific tool than on the underlying nature of information.
librarians have begun to use an embedded model as a way to deepen their connection with instructors and offer more systematic collection development and instruction. That is, librarians focus more on their partnerships with course instructors than on a separate library entity.
If TPACK is applied to instruction within a course, theoretically several people could be contributing this knowledge to the course. A good exercise is for librarians to map their knowledge onto TPACK.
ICT reflects the learner side of a course. However, ICT literacy can be difficult to integrate because it does not constitute a core element of any academic domain. Whereas many academic disciplines deal with key resources in their field, such as vocabulary, critical thinking, and research methodologies, they tend not to address issues of information seeking or collaboration strategies, let alone technological tools for organizing and managing information.
Instructional design for online education provides an optimal opportunity for librarians to fully collaborate with instructors.
The outcomes can include identifying the level of ICT literacy needed to achieve those learning outcomes, a task that typically requires collaboration between the librarian and the program’s faculty member. Librarians can also help faculty identify appropriate resources that students need to build their knowledge and skills. As education administrators encourage faculty to use open educational resources (OERs) to save students money, librarians can facilitate locating and evaluating relevant resources. These OERs not only include digital textbooks but also learning objects such as simulations, case studies, tutorials, and videos.
Reading online text differs from reading print both physically and cognitively. For example, students scroll down rather than turn online pages. And online text often includes hyperlinks, which can lead to deeper coverage—as well as distraction or loss of continuity of thought. Also, most online text does not allow for marginalia that can help students reflect on the content. Teachers and students often do not realize that these differences can impact learning and retention. To address this issue, librarians can suggest resources to include in the course that provide guidance on reading online.
My note – why specialist like Tom Hergert and the entire IMS is crucial for the SCSU library and librarians and how neglecting the IMS role hurts the SCSU library –
Similarly, other types of media need to be evaluated, comprehended, and interpreted in light of their critical features or “grammar.” For example, camera angles can suggest a person’s status (as in looking up to someone), music can set the metaphorical tone of a movie, and color choices can be associated with specific genres (e.g., pastels for romances or children’s literature, dark hues for thrillers). Librarians can explain these media literacy concepts to students (and even faculty) or at least suggest including resources that describe these features
My note – on years-long repetition of the disconnect between SCSU ATT, SCSU library and IMS –
instructors need to make sure that students have the technical skills to produce these products. Although librarians might understand how media impacts the representation of knowledge, they aren’t necessarily technology specialists. However, instructors and librarians can collaborate with technology specialists to provide that expertise. While librarians can locate online resources—general ones such as Lynda.com or tool-specific guidance—technology specialists can quickly identify digital resources that teach technical skills (my note: in this case IMS). My note: we do not have IDs, another years-long reminder to middle and upper management. Many instructors and librarians have not had formal courses on instructional design, so collaborations can provide an authentic means to gain competency in this process.
My note: Tom and I for years have tried to make aware SCSU about this combo –
Instructors likely have high content knowledge (CK) and satisfactory technological content knowledge (TCK) and technological knowledge (TK) for personal use. But even though newer instructors acquire pedagogical knowledge (PK), pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) early in their careers, veteran instructors may not have received this training. The same limitations can apply to librarians, but technology has become more central in their professional lives. Librarians usually have strong one-to-one instruction skills (an aspect of PK), but until recently they were less likely to have instructional design knowledge. ICT literacy constitutes part of their CK, at least for newly minted professionals. Instructional designers are strong in TK, PK, and TPK, and the level of their CK (and TCK and TPK) will depend on their academic background. And technology specialists have the corner on TK and TCK (and hopefully TPK if they are working in educational settings), but they may not have deep knowledge about ICT literacy.
Therefore, an ideal team for ICT literacy integration consists of the instructor, the librarian, the instructional designer, and the technology specialist. Each member can contribute expertise and cross-train the teammates. Eventually, the instructor can carry the load of ICT literacy, with the benefit of specific just-in-time support from the librarian and instructional designer.
Definitions of digital literacy can include the ability to use and access digital devices, but studies from the past decade tend to deepen this definition. A commonly cited definition from Colin Lankshear and Michele Knobel asserts that digital literacy is “shorthand for the myriad social practices and conceptions of engaging in meaning making mediated by texts that are produced, received, distributed, exchanged etc., via digital codification.”
More recently, scholars including Jennifer Sparrow have suggested even adopting the term digital fluency instead of literacy in order to capture how students may need the “ability to leverage technology to create new knowledge, new challenges, and new problems and to complement these with critical thinking, complex problem solving, and social intelligence to solve the new challenges.”
instructional designers are key players who could take a more visible role in higher education to support educators in bringing explicit instruction on digital literacy engagement into their classes. University staff in instructional design and educational/faculty development spaces consult with instructors, lead workshops, and develop support documentation on a regular basis. People in these roles could be more empowered to have conversations with the instructors they support around building in particular lessons
Douglas Belshaw can be a source of inspiration for understanding how his essential elements of digital literacy may contribute to the development of students’ digital fluencies. In particular, some practices may include:
Integrating the use of different applications and platforms so that students obtain practice in navigating these spaces, learning how to locate relevant and reliable information. For example, guiding students to specific databases that provide articles, books, etc., for your discipline may improve information and digital literacy. This is critical because most students default to Google search and Wikipedia, which may not be where you want them to explore topics.
Developing student’s ability to curate content and how to follow academic integrity guidelines for citations and references.
Establishing the norms and purpose for effective communication in a digital academic space.