Ternier, S., Klemke, R., Kalz, M., Van Ulzen, P., & Specht, M. (in press). ARLearn: augmented reality meets augmented virtuality [Special issue]. Journal of Universal Computer Science – Technolgy for learning across physical and virtual spaces.
Augmented reality (AR) and AR games offer a unique opportunity to
implement this core idea in linking real world situations and problems with learning
support. The theory of situated learning [Lave & Wenger, 90] is grounded on the
assumption that learners do not learn via the plain acquisition of knowledge but they
learn via the active participation in frameworks and social contexts with a specific
social engagement structure. Kolb’s learning cycle [Kolb, 84] and the concept of
experiential learning discusses
de Freitas stresses the importance of linking the
experiences made in a game, simulation or micro world with their application in real
world practices [de Freitas, 06]. [Brown & Cairns, 04] describe game immersion as a
continuum from engagement over engrossment to total immersion.
Despite the huge potential of immersive games to overcome the gap between the real
world and the educational context and the rising market for electronic games [PWC,
10], the use of technology-enhanced immersive games in education is still quite low.
The reasons for this are manyfold:
● high game development costs meet limited educational budgets [Westera et
● predefined games are hard to be integrated in the educational process
[Klopfer, Osterweil & Salen, 09]
● learner support in online games does not easily scale [Van Rosmalen et al.,
● furthermore, game platforms up to now could not easily be integrated with
real world environments.
augmented reality browsers like Layar and Wikitude
first mashups for Google StreetView (called StreetLearn) and for mobile
devices which use the Android Google Maps API (called ARLearn). StreetLearn is
intended to provide an augmented virtuality environment on a Desktop, while mobile
devices are provided with an augmented reality experience through ARLearn. By
creating scripts, adding interactive elements and by introducing gamification
elements, we believe that we can increase the learner’s motivation and provide a
richer learning experience linking mobile augmented reality and augmented virtuality.
freely available tools and offers an open REST API. From the enduser
point of view, playing games is easy for users and requires no special knowledge.
Creating scripts requires no programming skills but does impose still technical
background as scripts are to be edited either in JSON or XML.