Trends Tomorrow’s Teaching and Learning Environments

Innovating Pedagogy: Which Trends Will Influence Tomorrow’s Teaching and Learning Environments?

Stefanie Panke

In November 2015, the Open University released the latest edition of its ‘Innovating Pedagogyreport, the fourth rendition of an annual educational technology and teaching techniques forecast. While the timelines and publishing interval may remind you of the Horizon Report, the methodology for gathering the trends is different.

The NMC Horizon Team uses a modified Delphi survey approach with a panel of experts.

Teaching and Learning Environments

10 Innovative Pedagogy Trends from the 2015 Edition:

  1. Crossover Learning: recognition of diverse, informal achievements with badges.
  2. Learning through Argumentation: To fully understand scientific ideas and effectively participate in public debates students should practice the kinds of inquiry and communication processes that scientists use, and pursue questions without known answers, rather than reproducing facts.
  3. Incidental Learning: A subset of informal learning, incidental learning occurs through unstructured exploration, play and discovery. Mobile technologies can support incidental learning. An example is the app and website Ispot Nature.
  4. Context-based Learning: Mobile applications and augmented reality can enrich the learners’ context. An example is the open source mobile game platform ARIS.
  5. Computational Thinking: The skills that programmers apply to analyze and solve problems are seen as an emerging trend . An example is the programming environment SCRATCH.
  6. Learning by Doing Science with Remote Labs:  A collection of accessible labs is ilab
  7. Embodied learning: involving the body is essential for some forms of learning, how physical activities can influence cognitive processes.
  8. Adaptive Teaching: intelligent tutoring systems – computer applications that analyse data from learning activities to provide learners with relevant content and sequence learning activities based on prior knowledge.
  9. Analytics of Emotions: As techniques for tracking eye movements, emotions and engagement have matured over the past decade, the trend prognoses opportunities for emotionally adaptive learning environments.
  10. Stealth Assessment: In computer games the player’s progress gradually changes the game world, setting increasingly difficult problems through unobtrusive, continuous assessment.

6 Themes of Pedagogical Innovation

Based upon a review of previous editions, the report tries to categorize pedagogical innovation into six overarching themes:

 “What started as a small set of basic teaching methods (instruction, discovery, inquiry) has been extended to become a profusion of pedagogies and their interactions. So, to try to restore some order, we have examined the previous reports and identified six overarching themes: scale, connectivity, reflection, extension, embodiment, and personalisation.”

  1. Delivering education at massive scale.
  2. Connecting learners from different nations, cultures and perspectives.
  3. Fostering reflection and contemplation.
  4. Extending traditional teaching methods and settings.
  5. Recognizing embodied learning (explore, create, craft, and construct).
  6. Creating a personalized path through educational content.

Further Reading

Follow these links to blog posts and EdITLib resources to further explore selected trends:

full article can be found here:

Innovating Pedagogy: Which Trends Will Influence Tomorrow’s Teaching and Learning Environments?

Classroom Discussion and Students Participation

Classroom Discussion and Students Participation: how to Secure Student Engagement to Increase Learning and Improve Teaching

  • How to increase the number of students who take part in classroom discussions
  • How to avoid the problem of dominant talkers
  • How to encourage introverted students to increase their participation in classroom discussions
  • Strategies to help your students recognize what they learned in any discussion
  • How to use the first day of the semester to engage your students—and techniques for getting them to participate right from the start
  • What common classroom practices can decrease the likelihood of a student participating in discussion?
  • What strategies can you use to overcome established classroom practices and increase student participation?
  • And how can you structure classroom discussions to better facilitate student learning?

What does Research Tell Us about Classroom Discussion? Jay Howard
http://digitalcommons.butler.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1163&context=facsch_papers

Do College Students Participate More in Discussion in Traditional Delivery Courses or in Interactive Telecourses?
https://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_higher_education/v073/73.6howard.html

facts from sociological research:

  • Gender yields mixed results
    • Males participate more frequently than females.
    • Males participate more frequently in courses taught by female instructors
    • Other studies show the opposite
  • Non traditional students participate more frequently
  • Instructors’ gender also returns mixed results
  • Class size as variable is important, smaller classes, more participation
  • Class participation – grading
    • Make the students grade themselves at the end of each class period. By making them grade themselves, they reflect and makes them more aware of their contribution.
      0 – absent
      1 – present but did not verbally participate
      2 – verbally participated one time
      3 – verbally participated more than once
      4 – made an equitable contribution to discussion in terms of both quantity and quality

 

  • The well-known and established belief that smaller classes spur more participation.
    Jay Howard maintain his sociological research in 20th centuries constants: physical classroom, no technology surrounding.
    In the 21st century, clickers changed the opportunity for immediate feedback. They changed also the discourse of the traditional student participation and classroom discussion:
    http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/?s=clickers&submit=Search

Traditional forms and techniques for discussion and participation

Weih, T. G. (2015). Discussion Strategies for the Inclusion of ALL Students. Online Submission,
http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED561060

  • Don’ts:
    call on student
    instructor’s personality issues:

Does the instructor really care of what students have to say
lecturing does not predispose to discussion

  • The 10 second rule: students discuss in pairs the concept/question
  • Think-Pair-Share: discussion strategy before or after lesson, similar to 10 second but longer
  • Quick writes: write their thoughts and then share. Loose paper, names on top,
  • Recorder-reporter. Post-lecture. The person reps the group, who is working on a specific question. Each group different question.
  • K-W-L. what we know, what we want to learn, what we learned. Teacher instructs students that K = what they know, W = what they want to learn and L = what they learned. . work in small groups, but each student works on h/er chart, thus if student disagrees with rest of the group, has record. L is left blank for after the discussion.

Simich-Dudgeon, C., & National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, W. D. (1998). Classroom Strategies for Encouraging Collaborative Discussion. Directions in Language and Education. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED435188

  • Using storytelling

Chen, W., & Looi, C. (2007). Incorporating Online Discussion in Face to Face Classroom Learning: A New Blended Learning Approach. Australasian Journal Of Educational Technology, 23(3), 307-326.
Discussions and participation in hybrid environment

Jinhong, J., & Gilson, T. A. (2014). Online Threaded Discussion: Benefits, Issues, and Strategies. Kinesiology Review, 3(4), 241-246.
http://login.libproxy.stcloudstate.edu/login?qurl=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.ebscohost.com%2flogin.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26db%3ds3h%26AN%3d100248254%26site%3dehost-live%26scope%3dsite

For each OTD topic, the instructor randomly assigns two to four student discussion leaders who are in charge of organizing OTD for the assigned week. Each of the discussion leaders is asked to generate one or two discussion questions related to the topic based on reading assignments. The use of student discussion leaders is a strategy to encourage active participation and help develop ownership of learning. Once student discussion leaders post their questions, other students are encouraged to contribute to the discussion by answering each question, commenting on the ideas of others, or asking questions of peers or the instructor for the next two days. When the week’s discussion is complete, the student leaders and instructor work together to summarize the discussion and evaluate each student’s participation and contribution to the discussion using a scoring rubric. (p.242)

Implementation (p. 243):

  • preparation : On the first day of the course, the instructor introduces topics, how-tos, expectations, grading procedures, and required reading assignments for OTD, and organizes discussion leaders for each online discussion (2–4 leaders for each)
  • Opening and Responding: Posted discussion questions become open at the time of the class and students who are not the leaders are required to post at least one response per question within 48 hrs. During this time, the leaders facilitate discussion by responding to comments, raising questions, or redirecting discussion to encourage active participation and ensure the discussion is on track
  • Summary and Assessment: The job of the leader is to moderate, summarize discussion threads, and assess them at the end of the discussion. When the week’s discussion is complete, the leaders meet with the instructor to debrief and evaluate each student’s participation and contribution to the discussion using a scoring rubric given by the instructor. After the meeting, each leader posts his or her summary of the discussion to BBCMS and reports at the next in-person class.

 

  • D2L
  • Beyond CMS (D2L)

Discussions and participation in online environment

Darabi, A., Liang, X., Suryavanshi, R., & Yurekli, H. (2013). Effectiveness of Online Discussion Strategies: A Meta-Analysis. American Journal Of Distance Education, 27(4), 228-241. doi:10.1080/08923647.2013.837651

  • Beyond CMS (D2L)

Lin, P., Hou, H., Wang, S., & Chang, K. (2013). Analyzing knowledge dimensions and cognitive process of a project-based online discussion instructional activity using Facebook in an adult and continuing education course. Computers & Education, 60(1), 110-121. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2012.07.017
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131512001819

  1. 111 results suggest that using Facebook is not necessarily harmful to a student’s learning performance. Adequate learning activity design and pedagogical goal setting could, in fact, exploit the social and information-sharing function of Facebook, thereby supporting academic learning (Gray et al., 2010). this study seeks to advance the understanding of adult learners’ behaviors in online project discussions using Facebook.

In the process of project-based learning, learners must utilize different kinds of knowledge (e.g., discrete declarative knowledge and dynamic procedural knowledge) (Lou, 2004). Meanwhile, students can develop higher level of cognitive skills for a specific domain as well as the ability to apply adequate knowledge to a specific domain or context during PBL (Barron et al., 1998; Blumenfeld et al., 1991).

  1. 118
    Select driving questions or controversial issues as project topics: Blumenfeld et al. (1991) noted that driving questions could facilitate students to explore the project topic. In the exploration process, students must first collect information and propose diverse viewpoints on the project topics. They could subsequently filter out and reach consensus during online discussions. This process involves diverse and converging phases that can move students toward higher-order thinking (Jorczak & Bart, 2009).
  2. Allow ample time for online discussion: Results of this study indicated that student online discussions lacked diversity in both knowledge and cognitive process dimensions. One possible reason could be that the allotted time for online discussions was not sufficient. Considering the multiple roles that adult learners play in family and/or work, they may not be able to respond to the discussions in a timely manner. Therefore, allowing more time for students to discuss may provide opportunities for students to demonstrate more diverse and deeper thinking (Scherling, 2011).
  3. Provide a structured rubric for online discussions: Well-designed discussion guidelines and evaluation criteria, i.e., posting protocols or rubric for grading, could serve as scaffolds for student online discussions, which may, subsequently, lead to more meaningful learning (Gilbert & Dabbagh, 2005). Following that, more diverse type of knowledge and levels of cognitive process could be expected to be shown.
  4. Pay attention to the effects that individual differences may exert on the learner’s interactions: Our results showed that, in the context of online discussions, females and older learners are more likely to have off-topic discussions than their male and/or younger counterparts. These findings are in accord with previous research that suggested effects of individual differences on learning as well as on the use of SNSs (Glynn et al., 2012; Muscanell & Guadagno, 2012; Price, 2006; Yukselturk & Bulut, 2009). Therefore, considering the potential effects that gender and age may exert on online discussions, instructors are advised to consider individual differences when grouping students for online discussions, as a balanced group composition of evenly distributed age and gender could be a better approach than a skewed distribution of individuals.

 

social interaction, which was considered as irrelevant discussion, may also leading to meaningful thinking and echoes the viewpoints from previous studies, which suggest social interaction can be a critical element in the CSCL environment (Abedin et al., 2011a, 2011b).

Incorporating online discussion in face to face classroom learning: A new blended learning approach

Wenli Chen, Chee-Kit Looi

Abstract

This paper discusses an innovative blended learning strategy which incorporates online discussion in both in-class face to face, and off-classroom settings. Online discussion in a face to face class is compared with its two counterparts, off-class online discussion as well as in-class, face to face oral discussion, to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed strategy. By integrating online discussion into the flow of the classroom, learners are given dedicated time to foster a habit of critical thinking, reflection and articulating these online, which can subsequently seed further in-class oral discussions, and off-class online discussions. It is found that in-class, online discussion can provide a wider spectrum of discussion perspectives, equalise participation in discussion, and promote cognitive thinking skills and in depth information processing. However, the lack of face to face interactions and the need for sufficient time to do online postings pose challenges in implementing online discussion for face to face classroom learning.

PDF file available

=============

More on classroom discussions in this IMS blog:
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/?s=discussions&submit=Search

IMS wishes you a welcome to a new semester

We, the faculty from InforMedia Services (http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2015/10/06/technology-instruction-available-free/), are willing and able to help faculty, staff and students with their academic endeavors in technology.
We offer one-to-one sessions, production and instructional design assistance, workshops, instructional sessions and in-class technology instructions.

Please click here (http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2015/10/06/technology-instruction-available-free/ ) for a full list of the workshops available.

K-12 Technology

A Digital Future: K-12 Technology by 2018

http://www.theedadvocate.org/a-digital-future-k-12-technology-by-2018/

The recently-released New Media Consortium Horizon Report details six up-and-coming technologies in the next five years for K-12 classrooms.

Horizon #1: In the next year, or less.

Mobile learning. Cloud computing.

Horizon #2: Within two to three years.

Learning analytics. Open content.

Horizon #3: Within four to five years.

3D printing. Virtual laboratories.

Presented on the NMC K-12 Horizon Report over the weekend at the Alliance for International Education Conference held at Yew Chung International School of Shanghai: http://www.slideshare.net/davidwdeeds/aie-2015-china-conference-using-the-nmc-k12-horizon-report

 

transcription tool

it is a hot topic [and contested] topic at MnSCU, considering ADA. In the MnSCU case, it is video and audio material, here, it is text based. The crowdsourcing idea applies, though…

From: lita-l-request@lists.ala.org <lita-l-request@lists.ala.org> on behalf of Ronald Houk <rhouk@ottumwapubliclibrary.org>
Sent: Thursday, September 10, 2015 10:01 AM
To: lita-l@lists.ala.org
Subject: Re: [lita-l] Crowdsourced transcription tool?

 

Hi Kathryn,

Scripto looks like an interesting project.  http://scripto.org/

 

On Thu, Sep 10, 2015 at 8:31 AM, Kathryn Frederick (Library) <kfrederi@skidmore.edu> wrote:

Hi,

We recently had preservation work done on a number of 16th – 18th century land patents. We will be digitizing them, and would like to transcribe the documents which are hand-written in English and, in some cases, Latin.

Is anyone aware of a tool that would allow us to crowdsource the transcription?

Thanks for any suggestions,

Kathryn

 

Kathryn Frederick

Head of Digital and Collection Services

Lucy Scribner Library – Skidmore College

Saratoga Springs, NY 12866

(518) 580-5505
To maximize your use of LITA-L or to unsubscribe, see http://www.ala.org/lita/involve/email

Ronald Houk ☕
Assistant Director
Ottumwa Public Library
102 W. Fourth Street
Ottumwa, IA 52501
(641)682-7563×203
rhouk@ottumwapubliclibrary.org

 

Subject: Re: [lita-l] Crowdsourced transcription tool?

 

If you’re interested in a fully hosted solution, you might also check out http://beta.fromthepage.com/. The underlying software is open source and you can install it locally as well.

Ben Brumfield, the guy who developed FromThePage also has a blog, http://manuscripttranscription.blogspot.com/, which has some useful information about different systems.

Danielle Cunniff Plumer

Texas State Library and Archives Commission

grading

Game-Changing Grading Changes

http://www.techlearning.com/blogentry/9149

Grade the Product AND the Process

With Revision History, I’ve seen students work just two hours on a paper the night before it’s due and others spend considerable time and effort on a paper. Whatever the case may be, I can identify and address what I see in Revision History with a student to help them grow. My note: use wiki or Google Apps to be able to track changes in revision

Use Kaizena for Effective Feedback – Many teachers have discovered the awesome benefits of filming themselves and their lessons, but what about recording feedback? My note: use audio recording for feedback. a more positive place to learn because my students could now hear the intonation and inflection in my voice when I delivered feedback, not have their hearts broken by red ink. They could hear the positivity with which I reviewed their work and provided feedback.

Rethinking How We Grade Group Work

I had students submit group contracts which clearly stated when and where they would meet and who was responsible for completing what, when. This contract was used in our post-project meetings. By having clearly defined tasks and roles, each student was held accountable. Make them be specific. Instead of Tina will do research by Friday get them as close  to Tina will find five usable sources for the project and get them to Tom on the shared planning Doc by 3pm Friday.

Remember Revision History? It’s great for group projects because a Revision History is created for every person the Doc is shared with. Revision History can help a teacher see who contributed to group work and when because on any shared item in Google Drive, each individual is assigned their own color and timestamp. We can now better see how much each group member has contributed to an assignment. We can take this into consideration when grading, or, better yet, be proactive and intervene when a group’s shared planning Doc looks like one person is doing all the work

1) After a project, I gave students a Google Form where they could provide anonymous feedback on their peers efforts during the project. The Form also allowed students to grade these efforts using a rubric. I would then average the grades for each individual student and share the anonymous feedback at the post-group meetings. I would give them an opportunity to reflect on the feedback as a group and speak to the fairness of their averaged grade. Through this process we would come to an agreement on an individual grade for the project and a list of takeaways the could use to improve for next time.

Everyone is Replaceable

“Everyone is Replaceable” and Other Business Lies

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20141209145608-52594–everyone-is-replaceable-and-other-business-lies

Only fearful managers say “Everyone is replaceable.” Fearful managers say other hateful things, too, things like “I don’t pay you to think” and “That’s my decision, not yours.” Those fearful statements make it easy to tell which managers are deserving of your talents and which aren’t.

My note:
This line “Everyone is Replaceable” is ascribed to Stalin. In 1939, when he was sending his top officers to the Gulag, later not able to stop Hitler’s 1941 invasion.
When I heard the same expression from my former boss, I was thinking about Sting’s song: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNt5iK8EuAU
I was pleased to read the article and I agree with the ideas laid out.
However, it was an eye opener to read also the comments. I realized that the “managers” (even if some of them claimed they are “leaders”) are very critical toward the ideas. I realized that throughout reading the article, I was identifying myself with an “employee,” not the “manager” view point.
It is sad to see how critical the “managers” where toward the article, how behind they are the times; since the technocrat management is passe and people now long for a “human” leadership (Friedman’s “The World is Flat.”)
I was also flabbergasted to read the comments of all these experienced administrators, who cannot see the forest, only the three. Is it cultural? Generational? Gender-based? Whatever it is, it certainly does not paint pleasant picture for the work environment around us, the employees.

team building

Why we shouldn’t always get along

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/why-we-shouldnt-always-get-lucy-p.-marcus

A bit of disharmony can be very fruitful in a decision-making group. If we are to achieve innovation and disruption, then sometimes we first need discordance and discontent.

But the things that make for a great dinner party are not necessarily the things that make for a good decision-making body. Indeed, in some cases they might be just the opposite.

My note: I see the “dinner party” analogy very much as the “MN nice” analogy. When my previous boss said to me on my second year at SCSU that the foremost goal is to “get along,” my jaw dropped, since my German education and upbringing had taught me that the foremost goal is to “get the job done.”

How To Start Integrating Coding Into Project Based Learning

How To Start Integrating Coding Into Project Based Learning

http://www.edudemic.com/coding-into-project-based-learning/

PBL Tenet #1: Create Real World Connections

Coding Application: Find a solution to a problem by creating an App or Website

PBL Tenet #2: Foster Critical Thinking

Coding application: Coding requires a series of logical steps

PBL Tenet #3: Structured Collaboration

Coding application: Coding creates learning communities

PBL Tenet #4: Student Driven

Coding application: Perseverance and self teaching are important skills learned through coding

PBL Tenet #5: Multifaceted approach

Coding application: A programming language is only one part of an app or website