Posts Tagged ‘fake news #FakeNews’

WhatsApp and fake news

The three types of WhatsApp users getting Brazil’s Jair Bolsonaro elected

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/oct/25/brazil-president-jair-bolsonaro-whatsapp-fake-news

Opinion | Fake News Is Poisoning Brazilian Politics. WhatsApp …

Facebook’s WhatsApp flooded with fake news in Brazil election

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-brazil-election-whatsapp-explainer/facebooks-whatsapp-flooded-with-fake-news-in-brazil-election-idUSKCN1MU0UP

Viral WhatsApp Hoaxes Are India’s Own Fake News Crisis

Misinformation and political propaganda in the world’s largest democracy often go undetected — until they have brutal real-world impact.

https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/pranavdixit/viral-whatsapp-hoaxes-are-indias-own-fake-news-crisis

WhatsApp fights fake news with Indian newspaper ads

The push follows the lynching of five men over fake messages.

BY SEAN KEANE JULY 10, 2018 2:37 AM PDT

https://www.cnet.com/news/whatsapp-fights-fake-news-with-indian-newspaper-ads/
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more on fake news and social media in this IMS blog
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=fake+news+social+media

media literacy backfire

Did Media Literacy Backfire?

Jan 5, 2017danah boyd

https://points.datasociety.net/did-media-literacy-backfire-7418c084d88d

Understanding what sources to trust is a basic tenet of media literacy education.

Think about how this might play out in communities where the “liberal media” is viewed with disdain as an untrustworthy source of information…or in those where science is seen as contradicting the knowledge of religious people…or where degrees are viewed as a weapon of the elite to justify oppression of working people. Needless to say, not everyone agrees on what makes a trusted source.

Students are also encouraged to reflect on economic and political incentives that might bias reporting. Follow the money, they are told. Now watch what happens when they are given a list of names of major power players in the East Coast news media whose names are all clearly Jewish. Welcome to an opening for anti-Semitic ideology.

In the United States, we believe that worthy people lift themselves up by their bootstraps. This is our idea of freedom. To take away the power of individuals to control their own destiny is viewed as anti-American by so much of this country. You are your own master.

Children are indoctrinated into this cultural logic early, even as their parents restrict their mobility and limit their access to social situations. But when it comes to information, they are taught that they are the sole proprietors of knowledge. All they have to do is “do the research” for themselves and they will know better than anyone what is real.

Combine this with a deep distrust of media sources.

Many marginalized groups are justifiably angry about the ways in which their stories have been dismissed by mainstream media for decades.It took five days for major news outlets to cover Ferguson. It took months and a lot of celebrities for journalists to start discussing the Dakota Pipeline. But feeling marginalized from news media isn’t just about people of color.

Keep in mind that anti-vaxxers aren’t arguing that vaccinations definitively cause autism. They are arguing that we don’t know. They are arguing that experts are forcing children to be vaccinated against their will, which sounds like oppression. What they want is choice — the choice to not vaccinate. And they want information about the risks of vaccination, which they feel are not being given to them. In essence, they are doing what we taught them to do: questioning information sources and raising doubts about the incentives of those who are pushing a single message. Doubt has become tool.

Addressing so-called fake news is going to require a lot more than labeling. It’s going to require a cultural change about how we make sense of information, whom we trust, and how we understand our own role in grappling with information. Quick and easy solutions may make the controversy go away, but they won’t address the underlying problems.

In the United States, we’re moving towards tribalism (see Fukuyama), and we’re undoing the social fabric of our country through polarization, distrust, and self-segregation.

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boyd, danah. (2014). It’s Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens (1 edition). New Haven: Yale University Press.
p. 8 networked publics are publics that are reconstructed by networked technologies. they are both space and imagined community.
p. 11 affordances: persistence, visibility, spreadability, searchability.
p. technological determinism both utopian and dystopian
p. 30 adults misinterpret teens online self-expression.
p. 31 taken out of context. Joshua Meyrowitz about Stokely Charmichael.
p. 43 as teens have embraced a plethora of social environment and helped co-create the norms that underpin them, a wide range of practices has emerged. teens have grown sophisticated with how they manage contexts and present themselves in order to be read by their intended audience.
p. 54 privacy. p. 59 Privacy is a complex concept without a clear definition. Supreme Court Justice Brandeis: the right to be let alone, but also ‘measure of th access others have to you through information, attention, and physical proximity.’
control over access and visibility
p. 65 social steganography. hiding messages in plain sight
p. 69 subtweeting. encoding content
p. 70 living with surveillance . Foucault Discipline and Punish
p. 77 addition. what makes teens obsessed w social media.
p. 81 Ivan Goldberg coined the term internet addiction disorder. jokingly
p. 89 the decision to introduce programmed activities and limit unstructured time is not unwarranted; research has shown a correlation between boredom and deviance.
My interview with Myra, a middle-class white fifteen-year-old from Iowa, turned funny and sad when “lack of time” became a verbal trick in response to every question. From learning Czech to trakc, from orchestra to work in a nursery, she told me that her mother organized “98%” of her daily routine. Myra did not like all of these activities, but her mother thought they were important.
Myra noted that her mother meant well, but she was exhausted and felt socially disconnected because she did not have time to connect with friends outside of class.
p. 100 danger
are sexual predators lurking everywhere
p. 128 bullying. is social media amplifying meanness and cruelty.
p. 131 defining bullying in a digital era. p. 131 Dan Olweus narrowed in the 70s bulling to three components: aggression, repetition and imbalance on power. p. 152 SM has not radically altered the dynamics of bullying, but it has made these dynamics more visible to more people. we must use this visibility not to justify increased punishment, but to help youth who are actually crying out for attention.
p. 153 inequality. can SM resolve social divisions?
p. 176 literacy. are today’s youth digital natives? p. 178 Barlow and Rushkoff p. 179 Prensky. p. 180 youth need new literacies. p. 181 youth must become media literate. when they engage with media–either as consumers or producers–they need to have the skills to ask questions about the construction and dissemination of particular media artifacts. what biases are embedded in the artifact? how did the creator intend for an audience to interpret the artifact, and what are the consequences of that interpretation.
p. 183 the politics of algorithms (see also these IMS blog entries http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=algorithms) Wikipedia and google are fundamentally different sites. p. 186 Eli Pariser, The Filter Bubble: the personalization algorithms produce social divisions that undermine any ability to crate an informed public. Harvard’s Berkman Center have shown, search engines like Google shape the quality of information experienced by youth.
p. 192 digital inequality. p. 194 (bottom) 195 Eszter Hargittai: there are signifficant difference in media literacy and technical skills even within age cohorts. teens technological skills are strongly correlated with socio-economic status. Hargittai argues that many youth, far from being digital natives, are quite digitally naive.
p. 195 Dmitry  Epstein: when society frames the digital divide as a problem of access, we see government and industry as the responsible party for the addressing the issue. If DD as skills issue, we place the onus on learning how to manage on individuals and families.
p. 196 beyond digital natives

Palfrey, J., & Gasser, U. (2008). Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives (1 edition). New York: Basic Books.

John Palfrey, Urs Gasser: Born Digital
Digital Natives share a common global culture that is defined not by age, strictly, but by certain attributes and experience related to how they interact with information technologies, information itself, one another, and other people and institutions. Those who were not “born digital’ can be just as connected, if not more so, than their younger counterparts. And not everyone born since, say 1982, happens to be a digital native.” (see also http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2018/04/15/no-millennials-gen-z-gen-x/

p. 197. digital native rhetoric is worse than inaccurate: it is dangerous
many of the media literacy skills needed to be digitally savvy require a level of engagement that goes far beyond what the average teen pick up hanging out with friends on FB or Twitter. Technical skills, such as the ability to build online spaces requires active cultivation. Why some search queries return some content before others. Why social media push young people to learn how to to build their own systems, versus simply using a social media platforms. teens social status and position alone do not determine how fluent or informed they are via-a-vis technology.
p. 199 Searching for a public on their own

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Daum, M. (2018, August 24). My Affair With the Intellectual Dark Web – Great Escape. Retrieved October 9, 2018, from https://medium.com/s/greatescape/nuance-a-love-story-ae6a14991059

the intellectual dark web

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more on media literacy in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=media+literacy

fake news in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=fake+news

media literacy and fake news

Fight Fake News: Media Literacy for Students

Monday, October 15, 2018 @ 4:00 pm – 5:00 pm EDT

Fight Fake News

Presented by Tiffany Whitehead, School Librarian, Episcopal School of Baton Rouge, LA

Sponsored by Britannica Digital Learning

REGISTER HERE

JOIN THE LIVE SESSION

Teaching news literacy is more necessary and challenging than ever in a world where news is delivered at a constant pace from a broad range of sources. Since social media and filter bubbles can make it challenging to access unbiased, factual information, we must equip students to be critical as they access news sources for a variety of purposes. This live, interactive edWebinar will give an overview of the phenomenon of fake news going viral and tools educators can use to help students develop news literacy skills.

Tiffany Whitehead, School Librarian at Episcopal School of Baton Rouge in Louisiana, will share:

  • A strategy to develop fun, original lessons about media literacy
  • Fresh approaches that move students towards better news smarts
  • Three CCSS-aligned sample lesson plans for middle and high school classrooms
  • Teacher and librarian collaboration opportunities that support powerful student outcomes

Elementary through higher education level teachers, librarians, and school and district leaders will benefit from attending this session. There will be time to get your questions answered after Tiffany’s presentation.

Tiffany WhiteheadAbout the Presenter
Tiffany Whitehead, aka the Mighty Little Librarian, is an obsessive reader, social media user, and technology geek. She is the director of library at Episcopal School of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Tiffany earned her undergraduate degree in elementary education and School Library Certification from Southeastern Louisiana University, and her graduate degree in educational technology leadership from Northwestern State University. She has served as the president for ISTE’s Librarians Network and was recognized as one of ISTE’s 2014 Emerging Leaders. Tiffany is National Board Certified in Library Media and was named one of the 2014 Library Journal Movers & Shakers. She was the 2016 recipient of the Louisiana Library Media Specialist Award. She frequently speaks at local, state, and national conferences, sharing her passion for libraries and educational technology.

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Webinar notes

Definitions:

Media Literacy,

News Literacy

Fake News

Echo Chamber

https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/craigsilverman/viral-fake-election-news-outperformed-real-news-on-facebook

https://www.allsides.com/media-bias/media-bias-ratings

Fight The Fake: Fuel discussions with YouTube: https://britannicalearn.com/blog/fight-the-fake-youtube/

https://www.allsides.com/media-bias/media-bias-ratings

https://www.snopes.com/

https://www.britannica.com/insights

http://stxavier.libguides.com/news/factcheck

https://newseumed.org/curated-stack/media-literacy-resources

https://www.wnyc.org/story/breaking-news-consumers-handbook-pdf/

https://www.csuchico.edu/lins/handouts/eval_websites.pdf

Online CRAAP test: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdkWvyWZc7CE5fnYjCZww0IJLYH0sqxPRkmL8eS71uY1JNh1g/viewform?c=0&w=1

http://factitious.augamestudio.com/#/

Curriculum sources

How to choose your news Damon Brown: https://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-to-choose-your-news-damon-brown

Common Sense Media: Digital citizenship curriculum.

Newseum ed:

http://www.choices.edu/ Brown U Filtering News and Information

above the news: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC4K10PNjqgGLKA3lo5V8KdQ

06/2017 Homepage

https://www.amazon.com/Fact-Vs-Fiction-Teaching-Critical/dp/1564847047

https://newsela.com/

I’m now avoiding the term bias (too loaded and my kids automatically think “bad”). “Perspective” works better with my kids.

http://www.kappanonline.org/breakstone-need-new-approach-teaching-digital-literacy/

Filter Bubbles, Eli Pariser, TED talk https://www.ted.com/talks/eli_pariser_beware_online_filter

Credible Sources:

Circular Reporting

https://www.allsides.com/media-bias/media-bias-ratings

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more on fake news in this IMS blog
|http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=fake+news

 

 

Hoaxy

Interview with the Creators of Hoaxy® from Indiana University

Interview with the Creators of Hoaxy® from Indiana University

Falsehoods are spread due to biases in the brain, society, and computer algorithms (Ciampaglia & Menczer, 2018). A combined problem is “information overload and limited attention contribute to a degradation of the market’s discriminative power” (Qiu, Oliveira, Shirazi, Flammini, & Menczer, 2017).  Falsehoods spread quickly in the US through social media because this has become Americans’ preferred way to read the news (59%) in the 21st century (Mitchell, Gottfried, Barthel, & Sheer, 2016). While a mature critical reader may recognize a hoax disguised as news, there are those who share it intentionally. A 2016 US poll revealed that 23% of American adults had shared misinformation unwittingly or on purpose; this poll reported high to moderate confidence in one’s ability to identify fake news with only 15% not very confident (Barthel, Mitchell, & Holcomb, 2016).

Hoaxy® takes it one step further and shows you who is spreading or debunking a hoax or disinformation on Twitter.

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more on fake news in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=fake+news

media, digital literacy and fake news

An interactive discussion on media, digital literacy and fake news

Bryan Alexander’s Future Trends Forum w/ Special Guest Jennifer Sparrow

https://shindig.com/login/event/ftf-sparrow

On this week’s Future Trends Forum, Bryan Alexander and Jennifer Sparrow, the Senior Director of Teaching and Learning with Technology at Penn State University, will explore the significance of media and digital literacy, especially in the era of fake news.

Jennifer and Bryan will further dissect how digital literacy and fluency differ, and why this difference is important.

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more on digital literacy in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=digital+literacy+education

web site evaluation

A Game, a Video, and a Framework for Teaching Website Evaluation

In this age of fake and misleading news being spread through social media, it is more important than ever to teach students how to view websites with a critical eye. Here are three good resources

The RADCAB website offers short explanations of each of the aspects of evaluation and why they are significant. The site also provides a rubric (link opens PDF) that you can download and print for your students to use to score the credibility of a website.

Website Evaluation Explained by Common Craft teaches viewers to think like an editor when reviewing the claims made in articles on websites.

http://factitious.augamestudio.com/#/

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more on fake news in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=fake+news

Media Manipulation and Disinformation Online

A Review of ‘Media Manipulation and Disinformation Online’

In Media Manipulation and Disinformation Online, Marwick and Lewis (2017) of the Data & Society Research Institute described the agents of media manipulation, their modus operandi, motivators, and how they’ve taken advantage of the vulnerability of online media. The researchers described the manipulators as right-wing extremists (RWE), also known as alt-right, who run the gamut from sexists (including male sexual conquest communities) to white nationalists to anti-immigration activists and even those who rebuke RWE identification but whose actions confer such classification. These manipulators rally behind a shared belief on online forums, blogs, podcasts, and social media through pranks or ruinous trolling anonymity, usurping participatory culture methods (networking, humor, mentorship) for harassment, and competitive cyber brigades that earn status by escalating bullying such as the sharing of a target’s private information.

Marwick and Lewis reported on how RWE groups have taken advantage of certain media tactics to gain viewers’ attention such as novelty and sensationalism, as well as their interactions with the public via social media, to manipulate it for their agenda. For instance, YouTube provides any individual with a portal and potential revenue to contribute to the media ecosystem. The researchers shared the example of the use of YouTube by conspiracy theorists, which can be used as fodder for extremist networks as conspiracies generally focus on loss of control of important ideals, health, and safety.

One tactic they’re using is to package their hate in a way that appeals to millennials. They use attention hacking to increase their status such as hate speech, which is later recanted as trickster trolling all the while gaining the media’s attention for further propagation

SHARED MODUS OPERANDI

Marwick and Lewis reported the following shared tactics various RWE groups use for online exploits:

  • Ambiguity of persona or ideology,
  • Baiting a single or community target’s emotions,
  • Bots for amplification of propaganda that appears legitimately from a real person,
  • “…Embeddedness in Internet culture… (p. 28),”
  • Exploitation of young male rebelliousness,
  • Hate speech and offensive language (under the guise of First Amendment protections),
  • Irony to cloak ideology and/or skewer intended targets,
  • Memes for stickiness of propaganda,
  • Mentorship in argumentation, marketing strategies, and subversive literature in their communities of interest,
  • Networked and agile groups,
  • “…Permanent warfare… (p.12)” call to action,
  • Pseudo scholarship to deceive readers,
  • “…Quasi moral arguments… (p. 7)”
  • Shocking images for filtering network membership,
  • “Trading stories up the chain… (p. 38)” from low-level news outlets to mainstream, and
  • Trolling others with asocial behavior.

teenagers in Veles, Macedonia who profited around 16K dollars per month via Google’s AdSense from Facebook post engagements

a long history of mistrust with mainstream media

If you’re a college instructor of communications or teach digital literacy as a librarian, see the corresponding syllabus for this article. It provides discussion questions and assignments for teaching students about media manipulation. To teach your students how to combat fake news online, see my post on Navigating Post-Truth Societies: Strategies, Resources, and Technologies.

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more on fake news in this iMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=fake+news

Digital Literacy for SPED 405

Digital Literacy for SPED 405. Behavior Theories and Practices in Special Education.

Instructor Mark Markell. mamarkell@stcloudstate.edu Mondays, 5:30 – 8:20 PM. SOE A235

Preliminary Plan for Monday, Sept 10, 5:45 PM to 8 PM

Introduction – who are the students in this class. About myself: http://web.stcloudstate.edu/pmiltenoff/faculty Contact info, “embedded” librarian idea – I am available to help during the semester with research and papers

about 40 min: Intro to the library: http://web.stcloudstate.edu/pmiltenoff/bi/
15 min for a Virtual Reality tours of the Library + quiz on how well they learned the library:
http://bit.ly/VRlib
and 360 degree video on BYOD:
Play a scavenger hunt IN THE LIBRARY: http://bit.ly/learnlib
The VR (virtual reality) and AR (augmented reality) component; why is it important?
why is this technology brought up to a SPED class?
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2015/11/18/immersive-journalism/
autism: http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2018/09/10/sound-and-brain/
Social emotional learning
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2018/05/31/vr-ar-sel-empathy/
(transition to the next topic – digital literacy)

about 50 min:

  1. Digital Literacy

How important is technology in our life? Profession?

http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2018/08/20/employee-evolution/

Do you think technology overlaps with the broad field of special education? How?
How do you define technology? What falls under “technology?”

What is “digital literacy?” Do we need to be literate in that sense? How does it differ from technology literacy?
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=digital+literacy

Additional readings on “digital literacy”
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2017/08/23/nmc-digital-literacy/

Digital Citizenship: http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2015/10/19/digital-citizenship-info/
Play Kahoot: https://play.kahoot.it/#/k/e844253f-b5dd-4a91-b096-b6ff777e6dd7
Privacy and surveillance: how does these two issues affect your students? Does it affect them more? if so, how?  http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2018/08/21/ai-tracks-students-writings/

Social Media:
http://web.stcloudstate.edu/pmiltenoff/lib290/. if you want to survey the class, here is the FB group page: https://www.facebook.com/groups/LIB290/

Is Social Media part of digital literacy? Why? How SM can help us become more literate?

Digital Storytelling:
http://web.stcloudstate.edu/pmiltenoff/lib490/

How is digital storytelling essential in digital literacy?

about 50 min:

  1. Fake News and Research

Syllabus: Teaching Media Manipulation: https://datasociety.net/pubs/oh/DataAndSociety_Syllabus-MediaManipulationAndDisinformationOnline.pdf

#FakeNews is a very timely and controversial issue. in 2-3 min choose your best source on this issue. 1. Mind the prevalence of resources in the 21st century 2. Mind the necessity to evaluate a) the veracity of your courses b) the quality of your sources (the fact that they are “true” does not mean that they are the best). Be prepared to name your source and defend its quality.
How do you determine your sources? How do you decide the reliability of your sources? Are you sure you can distinguish “good” from “bad?”
Compare this entry https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fake_news_websites
to this entry: https://docs.google.com/document/d/10eA5-mCZLSS4MQY5QGb5ewC3VAL6pLkT53V_81ZyitM/preview to understand the scope

Do you know any fact checking sites? Can you identify spot sponsored content? Do you understand syndication? What do you understand under “media literacy,” “news literacy,” “information literacy.”  http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2017/03/28/fake-news-resources/

Why do we need to explore the “fake news” phenomenon? Do you find it relevant to your professional development?

Let’s watch another video and play this Kahoot: https://play.kahoot.it/#/k/21379a63-b67c-4897-a2cd-66e7d1c83027

So, how do we do academic research? Let’s play another Kahoot: https://play.kahoot.it/#/k/5e09bb66-4d87-44a5-af21-c8f3d7ce23de
If you to structure this Kahoot, what are the questions, you will ask? What are the main steps in achieving successful research for your paper?

  • Research using social media

what is social media (examples). why is called SM? why is so popular? what makes it so popular?

use SM tools for your research and education:

– Determining your topic. How to?
Digg http://digg.com/, Reddit https://www.reddit.com/ , Quora https://www.quora.com
Facebook, Twitter – hashtags (class assignment 2-3 min to search)
LinkedIn Groups
YouTube and Slideshare (class assignment 2-3 min to search)
Flickr, Instagram, Pinterest for visual aids (like YouTube they are media repositories)

Academia.com (https://www.academia.edu/Academia.edu, a paper-sharing social network that has been informally dubbed “Facebook for academics,” https://www.academia.edu/31942069_Facebook_for_Academics_The_Convergence_of_Self-Branding_and_Social_Media_Logic_on_Academia.edu

ResearchGate: https://www.researchgate.net/

– collecting and managing your resources:
Delicious https://del.icio.us/
Diigo: https://www.diigo.com/
Evernote: evernote.com OneNote (Microsoft)

blogs and wikis for collecting data and collaborating

– Managing and sharing your information:
Refworks,
Zotero https://www.zotero.org/,
Mendeley, https://www.mendeley.com/

– Testing your work against your peers (globally):

Wikipedia:
First step:Using Wikipedia.Second step: Contributing to Wikipedia (editing a page). Third step: Contributing to Wikipedia (creating a page)  https://www.evernote.com/shard/s101/sh/ef743d1a-4516-47fe-bc5b-408f29a9dcb9/52d79bfa20ee087900764eb6a407ec86

– presenting your information


please use this form to cast your feedback. Please feel free to fill out only the relevant questions:
http://bit.ly/imseval

metaliterate learning

Metaliterate Learning for the Post-Truth World to be Published this Fall!

definition:

Metaliteracy is a pedagogical model for ensuring that learners successfully participate in collaborative information environments, including social media and online communities.

Metaliteracy supports reflective learning through metacognitive thinking, the ethical production of new knowledge, the critical consumption of information, and the responsible sharing of verifiable content across media platforms. Through metaliteracy, learners are envisioned as teachers in collaborative social spaces. This book examines the newest version of the Metaliteracy Goals and Learning Objectives, including the four domains of metaliterate learning.

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more on metaliteraices in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=metaliteracies

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