Searching for "plagiarism"

plagiarism and academic integrity

Posner, Kouwe, and Hegemann: old-school vs. new-school attitudes about plagiarism

http://www.csmonitor.com/Commentary/Opinion/2010/0219/Posner-Kouwe-and-Hegemann-old-school-vs.-new-school-attitudes-about-plagiarism

Generation-Y literary remixing? or plagiarism?

I’ve typically come to the defense of Gen Y, to which I belong, when baby boomers and others accuse us of neglecting personal relationships in favor of social networking, or of growing so reliant on technology that we’re unable to operate an actual telephone book or read a paper map. I even make my living doing all kinds of Millennial-y things like blogging and writing for online publications. But I also went to a solid journalism school that instilled me with plenty of old-old-school values, many of which I don’t think are forgiving when it comes to lifting another person’s writing or insights without also admitting where you got them.

Evering L, Moorman G. Rethinking Plagiarism in the Digital Age. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy [serial online]. September 2012;56(1):35-44. Available from: EBSCO MegaFILE, Ipswich, MA. Accessed December 3, 2014.

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The current concept of plagiarism is based on a capitalist view of property and ownership. It assumes that everything of value can be owned, bought, and sold and that ideas, knowledge, and art are created by individuals who have the rights of ownership. This view is deeply ingrained in Western culture.

Traditional definitions of plagiarism are further challenged by the digital revolution.

This situation has caused the current Millennial generation to see knowledge ownership, acquisition, and distribution in radically different terms than in previous generations. Clearly,
academia is past due in reevaluating the concept and how we deal with it in secondary and higher
education.

Plagiarism and the Millennials

https://hubbardbecky.wordpress.com/2010/09/22/plagiarism-and-millenialls/

Plagiarism: can Turnitin solve it?…

Turnitin And The Debate Over Anti-Plagiarism Software

http://www.npr.org/blogs/ed/2014/08/25/340112848/turnitin-and-the-high-tech-plagiarism-debate

excellent report by NPR on the advantages but also perils of computerizing/automation of a complex process, which requires prolonged education and discussions, rather then “yielding with a hammer.”

What is your take on how students can be educated to avoid plagiarism?
How academic dishonesty should be handled?

Please consider other IMS blog entries on plagiarism

http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/?s=plagiarism

What is plagiarism?

Martine Herzog-Evans

Follow Martine

What is plagiarism?

Law Professor at the University of Reims, FranceTop Contributor

A colleague of mine is asking us to organise a disciplinary commission for a student who, during a test (home test) quoted an author at great length. I disagree with his judgement. This in my opinion is youth caution (I’m not too sure about what I think so I protect myself with very long quotes). She did refer to the author in question and did not steal his ideas as her own. The risk for the student (who happens to be a very good one) is that she may lose the right to pass any national exam of any sort for x years. I intend to defend her at the disciplinary hearing as I happen to have supervised her for a research last year and am supervising her this year for another and know what she’s made of. The question to you all is : what constitutes plagiarism in your opinion and practice?

 

179 comments

  • Shaun JamisonShaun

    Shaun Jamison

    Law Professor & Librarian

    @ Gregg, another clue is when they don’t bother to take out the hyperlinks from the original source they didn’t credit.

  • Gregg

    Gregg Etter

    Associate Professor at University of Central Missouri

    @Shawn. the sad part is if they would have credited the source it would have been research, not plagiarism!

  • John HainsJohn

    John Hains

    Associate Professor at Clemson University

    Gregg, I get the ‘lazy’ student part. How common is it for courses to be so redundant that a paper like this could be ‘re-cycled’?

  • Gregg

    Gregg Etter

    Associate Professor at University of Central Missouri

    @ John. That’s the point. The class I was teaching was policing in a democratic society. The paper was from a juvenile justice class that was taught by another professor. The content of the two courses does not match. It becomes real obvious when you get a re-cycled criminal law paper in a hate crimes or organized crime class. Some things will transfer and all knowledge is collective. However, in organized crime if you wanted to talk about criminal law, you might talk about the application of R.I.C.O., not Marbury v Madison or Estelle v. Gamble. A person wanting to apply the principles of juvenile justice might talk about the extended rights of a juvenile under Mirranda v. Arizona, not about juvenile holding facilities or juvenile courts.

  • Dr. Murphy NmeziDr. Murphy

    Dr. Murphy Nmezi

    Professor/Academic Mentor, Pathology/Pharmacology/Biostatistics

    Apropos Howard’s response to Mihail’s question:

    I once conducted an initial interview, in virtual space, to fill one of two biostatistics faculty positions that we had. And, it is important to note that success at this interview requires that the candidate be able to answer key questions in biostatistics analysis.

    With each question, (believe me, these are basic questions that anyone with an advanced degree in a related field should be able to answer), I could distinctly hear this individual “banging away” at the keyboard in search of the answer. Obviously, this candidate wasn’t prepared for the interview, nor did s/he possess the foundational knowledge that a degree holder in a field of study must have to succeed. Was it plagiarism or not?

    Perhaps, this candidate plagiarized his/her way through college and graduate school. Who knows? But, I can confidently bet my retirement that some of these jokers are slipping, undetected, through our educational system. I will also bet that this is happening, even to a greater extent, worldwide.

    Mihails Ņ. likes this

  • Harold KatcherHarold

    Harold Katcher

    Professor at University of Maryland

    John, I for one teach four classes, human biology, human health and disease (a watered-down patho-physiology course), the biology of aging and neuroscience. Someone could submit a paper say on Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, any of the dementias to any of these courses, a paper on atherosclerosis to three of them etc. But what is the point of writing the papers? To present their fellow students with new information (assuming they read it) or to give the student an opportunity to learn something new and demonstrate their comprehension? For me it’s mostly the latter, and allowing recycled papers doesn’t accomplish that.
    And Dr. Nmezi I totally agree with you – for everyone we catch, how many slip through undetected?
    Most countries in the world have constitutions that when examined closely, provide all the safeguards needed by a society – but in many places those laws are not upheld (for national security’s sake – a US excuse). So all’s I’m saying is uphold those rules that are in place – softening them may help those who otherwise might not be able to complete or compete successfully in a course or program, but you a hurting the society that expects that graduates of a program will be competent in what they do.

    Dr. Murphy N. likes this

  • John HainsJohn

    John Hains

    Associate Professor at Clemson University

    Harold, I guess I was thinking in terms of courses taught by different teachers. However, four of the five lecture courses I teach are strongly related and with that in mind, I make sure that I am in control of both the content and the assessment. So I make sure that if there is some overlap in content, I do not make an assignment which allows ‘recycling’. If someone has taken a similar course at another institution and ‘recycles’ a report, I have no way to detect that. So as far as I can tell I have never had a problem with this. But my assignments are structured so that they simply can’t support ‘recycling’.

topics for IM260

proposed topics for IM 260 class

  • Media literacy. Differentiated instruction. Media literacy guide.
    Fake news as part of media literacy. Visual literacy as part of media literacy. Media literacy as part of digital citizenship.
  • Web design / web development
    the roles of HTML5, CSS, Java Script, PHP, Bootstrap, JQuery, React and other scripting languages and libraries. Heat maps and other usability issues; website content strategy. THE MODEL-VIEW-CONTROLLER (MVC) design pattern
  • Social media for institutional use. Digital Curation. Social Media algorithms. Etiquette Ethics. Mastodon
    I hosted a LITA webinar in the fall of 2016 (four weeks); I can accommodate any information from that webinar for the use of the IM students
  • OER and instructional designer’s assistance to book creators.
    I can cover both the “library part” (“free” OER, copyright issues etc) and the support / creative part of an OER book / textbook
  • Big Data.” Data visualization. Large scale visualization. Text encoding. Analytics, Data mining. Unizin. Python, R in academia.
    I can introduce the students to the large idea of Big Data and its importance in lieu of the upcoming IoT, but also departmentalize its importance for academia, business, etc. From infographics to heavy duty visualization (Primo X-Services API. JSON, Flask).
  • NetNeutrality, Digital Darwinism, Internet economy and the role of your professional in such environment
    I can introduce students to the issues, if not familiar and / or lead a discussion on a rather controversial topic
  • Digital assessment. Digital Assessment literacy.
    I can introduce students to tools, how to evaluate and select tools and their pedagogical implications
  • Wikipedia
    a hands-on exercise on working with Wikipedia. After the session, students will be able to create Wikipedia entries thus knowing intimately the process of Wikipedia and its information.
  • Effective presentations. Tools, methods, concepts and theories (cognitive load). Presentations in the era of VR, AR and mixed reality. Unity.
    I can facilitate a discussion among experts (your students) on selection of tools and their didactically sound use to convey information. I can supplement the discussion with my own findings and conclusions.
  • eConferencing. Tools and methods
    I can facilitate a discussion among your students on selection of tools and comparison. Discussion about the their future and their place in an increasing online learning environment
  • Digital Storytelling. Immersive Storytelling. The Moth. Twine. Transmedia Storytelling
    I am teaching a LIB 490/590 Digital Storytelling class. I can adapt any information from that class to the use of IM students
  • VR, AR, Mixed Reality.
    besides Mark Gill, I can facilitate a discussion, which goes beyond hardware and brands, but expand on the implications for academia and corporate education / world
  • IoT , Arduino, Raspberry PI. Industry 4.0
  • Instructional design. ID2ID
    I can facilitate a discussion based on the Educause suggestions about the profession’s development
  • Microcredentialing in academia and corporate world. Blockchain
  • IT in K12. How to evaluate; prioritize; select. obsolete trends in 21 century schools. K12 mobile learning
  • Podcasting: past, present, future. Beautiful Audio Editor.
    a definition of podcasting and delineation of similar activities; advantages and disadvantages.
  • Digital, Blended (Hybrid), Online teaching and learning: facilitation. Methods and techniques. Proctoring. Online students’ expectations. Faculty support. Asynch. Blended Synchronous Learning Environment
  • Gender, race and age in education. Digital divide. Xennials, Millennials and Gen Z. generational approach to teaching and learning. Young vs old Millennials. Millennial employees.
  • Privacy, [cyber]security, surveillance. K12 cyberincidents. Hackers.
  • Gaming and gamification. Appsmashing. Gradecraft
  • Lecture capture, course capture.
  • Bibliometrics, altmetrics
  • Technology and cheating, academic dishonest, plagiarism, copyright.

intellectual property

When:  October 24, 2017    2:00-3:00pm
Where: Adobe Connect meeting:  https://webmeeting.minnstate.edu/oercommunityconversations

Who: Karen Pikula, Psychology faculty, Central Lakes College, and Minnesota State OER Faculty Development Coordinator

Special Guest: Gary Hunter System Director for Intellectual Property

Questions?  

Feel free to contact Kimberly Johnson, Director of Faculty and Instructional Development at kimberly.johnson@minnstate.edu or Karen Pikula, Minnesota State OER Faculty Development Coordinator, at karen.pikula@minnstate.edu.

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notes from the webinar

Gary Hunter. copyright. movies, public performance rights, youtube videos. up

the compliance of the terms of service of the web site. Contract law. copyright law. system procedure – copyright clearance, clearing the copyright means using it without violating the copyright law.

clearing copyright:

  • determine if materials are or are not protected
  • use your own original materials
  • perform fair use analysis with fair use checklist to usitify use
  • use in compliance with sections 110 (1) & (2) of copyright act
  • use materials avaialble through an open or CC license
  • get permission (letter, email, subscription, license, etc.)

http://www.minnstate.edu/system/asa/academicaffairs/policy/copyright/forms.html 

8 categories of copyright works

establishing copyright. eligibility requirements;

  • fixation
  • originality
  • minimal creativity

when these three criteria met, copyright arises automatically.

registering a copyright https://www.copyright.gov/ . $35. 70 years for individuals and 95 for corporations or 210 years

not protected by copyright

  • public domain (expired copyright/donated)
  • federal gov publications and web site info
  • works typically registered as a trademark
    • tag lines and slogans
      • just do it – nike 1988
      • got milk – 1993
  • math equations and formulas
  • recipes
  • blank forms
  • phone books

copyright holder exclusive rights

  1. make copies of the work
  2. prepare derivative works
  3. distribute copies
  4. perform the work – performing live (band concert); pre-record audio visual of the same items. DVD play of a movie is considered “performing”
  5. display the work

legality vs reality

legality – activity may be copyright infringement from a legal point of view.

reality – tolerated or ignored by the copyright holder for various reasons

limitations on copyright

  • fair use (#107). librarians use it a lot to copy. using copyright works in F2F teaching, scholarship, research and other non-profit ed purposes.
    1. criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, research

four factors to consider (not educational exception) ; it is a four part test to apply: 1. purpose and character if tge yse 2. nature of the copyirghted work (e.g. factual v creative) 3. amount
http://www.minnstate.edu/system/asa/academicaffairs/policy/copyright/docs/Fair_Use_Checklist1.pdf

http://www.minnstate.edu/system/asa/academicaffairs/policy/copyright/forms.html

fair use >> . transformation: 1. add / subtract from original 2. use for different purpose; >> parody songs – using enough of music and words to recognize the song, but not enough to it to be copyright infrigement. memes.

students’ use of copyrighted works. students may: use the entire copyrighted work but not publish openly

copyright act #110 (1) applies to F2F teaching.

copyright act #110 (2) applies to Hybrid/Online teaching. exception one digital copy can made and uploaded on D2L. reasonable and limited portions of dramatic musical or audiovisual works

http://www.minnstate.edu/system/asa/academicaffairs/policy/copyright/forms.html

personal use v public performance.

if people identifiable ask them to sign a media release form

plagiarism v copyright infringement.

Creative Commons (CC). search engine for content available through cc licenses. https://creativecommons.org/ CC BY – attribution needed; CC BY-SA may remix, tweak CC BY-ND can redistribute, but not alter CC BY-NC for non profit. CC BY-NC-SA

copyright questions

book chapters: one is a rule of thumb
PDF versions of the eassays textbook acceptable, if the students purchased it

music performance licenses: usually cover – educational activities on campus; ed activities at off-campus locations that are outreach

music licenses: BMI, ASCAP, SESAC

#201. Ownership of Copyright. Student ownership http://www.minnstate.edu/system/asa/academicaffairs/policy/copyright/forms.html

MnSCU board policy 3.26 intellectual policy. part 4, subpart A: institutional works; scholarly works; personal works; student works. MnSCU board policy 3.27.1: copyright clearance.

Gary.Hunter@so.mnscu.edu

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more on OER in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=oer

Embedded Librarianship in Online Courses

Embedded Librarianship in Online Courses

Instructor: Mimi O’Malley Dates: October 2nd to 27th, 2017

http://libraryjuiceacademy.com/081-embedded-online.php

Learning outcomes:

  • Discuss ways to incorporate library services through the learning management system level.
  • Examine bibliographic instruction in the virtual classroom through team teaching, guest lecturing.
  • Identify librarian roles during the design and development of online courses.
  • Assessing embedded librarianship efforts.

Mimi O’Malley is the learning technology translation strategist at Spalding University. She helps faculty prepare course content for hybrid and fully online courses in addition to incorporating open education resources into courses. She previously wrote and facilitated professional development courses and workshops at the Learning House, Inc. Mimi has presented workshops on online learning topics including assessment, plagiarism, copyright, and curriculum trends at the Learning House, Inc. CONNECT Users Conference, SLOAN-C ALN, Pencils and Pixels and New Horizons Teaching & Learning Conference. Interview with Mimi O’Malley

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more on embedded librarian in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=embedded+librarian

OER workday librarians

Librarians OER Workday

SCSU ad hoc team on open books from Spring 2015

http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2016/04/06/e-textbook-ad-hoc-team/

Gary Hunter
Creating OER Texbooks using copyright and CC licensed materials.

http://www.minnstate.edu/system/asa/academicaffairs/policy/copyright/index.html

http://www.minnstate.edu/system/asa/academicaffairs/policy/ip/index.html

What can be put on the OER textbooks:

D2L upload: every time, it is called “distribution.”

plays, music, prerecorded files such as DVD, music CD.

sculpture or painting on a Web site,

five rights avoid violating. System procedure 3.27.1 copyright clearance

 

Copyright and OER, GRIT May2017 from Esko Lius

DMCA Digital Millennium Copyright Act

there are certain works which are not protected

Dmc aexemptions2010 from dixieyeager

The difference between Plagiarism and copyright infringement

CI is a violation of a federal law. Plagiarism can turn into CI.

creative commons

Creative Commons License Basics 2010 from Sue Gallaway

NC – no competitor can take our work and use it against us.

faculty can use anything in F2F, which is lawfully obtained. Flickr, photo without violating the regulations, it can be used in a PPT, but only on a F2F classroom. In OER, it needs to be revised.

Gary can share a “media release” form (slid 17).

Open Textbook Institute (Kimberly Johnson)

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Shane Nackerud and Matthew Lee
use of Pressbooks (it is open source). Minitex pays a vendor to host it, but it can be hosted locally, because it is open source

https://mlpp.pressbooks.pub/
Minnesota Library Publishing Project – partner ship between Minitex and public libraries.

authoring tool. Platform to edit and publish.

Building an Ebook Platform from Scratch: Are You Daft?

http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2017/03/07/library-technology-conference-2017/ 

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Alex Kent, Digital Initiative Librarian

Islandora

Islandora Overview: PASIG May 2013 from Mark Leggott

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OER stakeholders and critical contacts on your campus: CETL, TLTR

Preparation: as per link above, the libraray (former LRS) met in the spring of 2015

what is the role of the library staff in the OER movement. promote what already exists. Open textbook group https://www.cccoer.org/

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Stephen Kelly, OER Project Grants Manager

https://www.opened.com/

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more on OER in this IMS blog

http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=open+source

global education teaching learning conference

International Academic Conference on Global Education, Teaching and Learning in Vienna, Austria 2017 (IAC-GETL in Vienna 2017)

https://www.conferences-scientific.cz/inpage/conference-vienna-iacgetl-2017/

Conference Program Dates

Friday – Saturday, November 24 – 25, 2017

Venue Hotel – Fourside Hotel City Center Vienna
Grieshofgasse 11, A – 1120 Wien / Vienna, AUSTRIA

About the Conference

International Academic Conference in Vienna 2017 is an important international gathering of scholars, educators and PhD students. IAC-GETL 2017 in Vienna will take place in conference facilities located in Vienna, the touristic, business and historic center of Austria.

Conference language: English language

Conferences organized by the Czech Institute of Academic Education z.s. and Czech Technical University in Prague.

Conference Topics

Conference Topics – Education, Teaching, Learning and E-learning

Education, Teaching and Learning

Distance Education, Higher Education, Effective Teaching Pedagogies, Learning Styles and Learning Outcomes, Emerging Technologies, Educational Management, Engineering and Sciences Research, Competitive Skills, Continuing Education, Transferring Disciplines, Imaginative Education, Language Education, Geographical Education, Health Education, Home Education, Science Education, Secondary Education, Second life Educators, Social Studies Education, Special Education, Learning / Teaching Methodologies and Assessment, Assessment Software Tools, Global Issues In Education and Research, Education, Research and Globalization, Barriers to Learning (ethnicity, age, psychosocial factors, …), Women and Minorities in Science and Technology, Indigenous and Diversity Issues, Intellectual Property Rights and Plagiarism, Pedagogy, Teacher Education, Cross-disciplinary areas of Education, Educational Psychology, Education practice trends and issues, Indigenous Education, Academic Research Projects, Research on Technology in Education, Research Centres, Links between Education and Research, Erasmus and Exchange experiences in universities, Students and Teaching staff Exchange programmes

E-learning

Educational Technology, Educational Games and Software, ICT Education, E-Learning, Internet technologies, Accessibility to Disabled Users, Animation, 3D, and Web 3D Applications, Mobile Applications and Learning (M-learning), Virtual Learning Environments, Videos for Learning and Educational Multimedia, Web 2.0, Social Networking and Blogs, Wireless Applications, New Trends And Experiences, Other Areas of Education

grammarly alternatives

https://www.grammarly.com/

alternatives for proofreading, grammar and spelling checker, vocabulary uses, citation suggestions:
http://alternativeto.net/software/grammarly-grammar-checker/
http://www.tricksroad.com/2016/02/grammarly-alternatives.html
https://www.codeinwp.com/blog/grammarly-vs-jetpack-vs-ginger-vs-hemingway-for-wordpress/

LanguageTool

Hemingway Editor  

Ludwig.guru

ProWritingAid

Ginger

Grammar Checker Academic

Writefull

Editsaurus

Unicheck

Antidote

PaperRater

Proofread Bot

Slick Write

Analyze My Writing

Refly Editor

VirtualWritingTutor

Just Not Sorry — the Gmail Plug-in

SEO Tools Centre

Grammarian PRO2

WhiteSmoke

Expresso app

SpellCheckPlus

Stylewriter

Document Grader

Speckie

1Checker

Plagtracker

AfterScan

WeAllEdit

eAngel Human Online Proofreading Service

GradeProof

TextTrust

PlagiarismSearch

Gramlee.com

Compilatio.net

tinySpell

digital assessment literacy

Eyal, L. (2012). Digital Assessment Literacy — the Core Role of the Teacher in a Digital Environment. Journal Of Educational Technology & Society, 15(2), 37-49.

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Common to all is a view of the level of literacy as a measure of the quality of human capital of a society or a particular area. Literacy develops in interaction with the environment (Vygotsky, 1987).

digital assessment literacy refers to the role of the teacher as an assessor in a technology-rich environment.

Learning Management Systems (LMS) benefits and limitations

Measurement allows quantitative description of a particular characterization of an individual, expressed in numbers.

the combination of assessment and measurement provides a thorough and accurate picture, based upon which practical conclusions can be drawn (Wagner, 1997). A test is a systematic process in which an aspect of student behavior is quantitatively evaluated (Suen & Parkes, 2002).

For several decades this system of assessment has been criticized for a variety of reasons, including the separation between the teaching-learning process and the evaluation process, the relatively low level of thinking required, and the quantitative reporting of results, which does not contribute to students’ progress. In the last decade, the central argument against the tests system is that their predictability is limited to the field and context in which the students are tested, and that they do not predict student problem solving ability, teamwork, good work habits and honesty.

teachers mistakenly believe that repeating lessons will improve students’ achievements.

To evaluate how well the goals were achieved, objective measurement methods are employed (Black, et al., 2004).

Eshet- Alkalai (2004) offered a detailed conceptual framework for the term ‘digital literacy’ that includes: photo-visual thinking; reproduction thinking; branching thinking; information thinking; and socio-emotional thinking.

Eshet-Alkalai, Y. (2004). Digital literacy: A conceptual framework for survival skills in the digital era. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 13(1), 93–106.

Eshet-Alkalai, Y., & Chajut, E. (2009). Changes Over Time in Digital Literacy. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(6), 713-715. doi:10.1089/cpb.2008.0264

two major patterns of change over time: (a) closing the gap between younger and older participants in the tasks that emphasize profi- ciency and technical control and (b) widening the gap between younger and older participants in tasks that emphasize creativity and critical thinking. Based on the comparison with the matched control groups, we suggest that experience with technology, and not age, accounts for the observed lifelong changes in digital literacy skills

Eshet-Alkalai, Y., & Soffer, O. (2012). Guest Editorial – Navigating in the Digital Era: Digital Literacy: Socio-Cultural and Educational Aspects. Journal Of Educational Technology & Society, 15(2), 1.

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a wide range of technological, cognitive and social competences—collectively termed “Digital Literacy.” Users thus must become “digitally literate” in order to cope effectively with the complex sociological, cognitive and pedagogical challenges these technologies pose. These skills include, for example, the ability to operate computers and navigate the net effectively, to cope with large volumes of information, to evaluate the reliability of information, and to critically assess what seem to be natural (and not ideologically biased) technological tools. In a different way from the spirit of modern print, learners construct and consume knowledge in non-linear environments. They need to learn, collaborate and solve problems effectively in virtual (non face-to-face) learning environments, and to communicate effectively in technology-mediated social participation environments.

It is important to note: digital literacy, then, is not limited simply to computer and Internet operation and orientation. It also relates to a variety of epistemological and ethical issues arise due to the unique characteristics of digital technologies and that are often overlapped with trends related to the post-modern and post-structural era. These include questions regarding the authority of knowledge, intellectual property and ownership, copyright, authenticity and plagiarism. Furthermore, issues such as self-representation, virtual group dynamics, and on-line addiction also arise.

 

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more on digital literacy in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=digital+assessment+literacy

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