Archive of ‘Library and information science’ category

14 obsolete trends in 21 century schools

14 things that are obsolete in 21st century schools

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  1. computer rooms
  2. isolated classrooms
  3. schools without WiFi
  4. Banned phones and tablets
  5. Tech director with an administrator access, instead of technology coordinators in touch with teachers and students
  6. Teachers not sharing what they do
  7. Schools without FB and Twitter presence
  8. Unhealthy cafeteria food
  9. Teenagers start at 8AM
  10. Buying poster-, website- and pamphlet design for the school
  11. traditional libraries
  12. students same age in same classes
  13. one-Professional Development-workshop-fits-all for school staff
  14. standardized tests to measure the quality of education

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more on ISTE news in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=iste
use of laptops in the classroom
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2017/04/03/use-of-laptops-in-the-classroom/

library user

The Library in the Life of the User. Engaging with People Where They Live and Learn

http://www.oclc.org/content/dam/research/publications/2015/oclcresearch-library-in-life-of-user.pdf
p. 18
Library staff
The roles of librarians change with changes in user needs and demands and the technology employed. A survey conducted for Research Libraries UK found skill gaps in nine key areas in which subject librarians could be supporting researchers’ needs. Even though many librarians may want to hire new staff with these skills, a survey found that the reality for most will be training existing staff.
Definitions of library services will change. We need to grow the ways users can engage with whatever they value from libraries, whether papyrus rolls, maker spaces or data management instruction.
p. 19
What is the Unique Selling Point (USP) of libraries vis-à-vis other information service providers?
p. 21
Librarians should measure the effectiveness of services based on the users’ perceptions of success. Librarians also should move beyond surveys of how library space is being used and should conduct structured observations and interviews with the people using the space. It is not enough to know that the various spaces, whether physical or virtual, are busy. Librarians need to understand when and how the spaces are being used.

p. 33 What is Enough? Satisficing Information Needs

Role theory explains that: “When people occupy social positions their behavior is determined mainly by what is expected of that position rather than by their own individual characteristics” (Abercrombie et al., 1994, p. 360).
Rational choice theory is based on the premise that complex social behavior can be understood in terms of elementary individual actions because individual action is the elementary unit of social life. Rational choice theory posits that individuals choose or prefer what is best to achieve their objectives or pursue their interests, acting in their self-interest (Green, 2002). Stated another way, “When faced with several courses of action, people usually do what they believe is likely to have the best overall outcome” (Scott, 2000).
When individuals satisfice, they compare the benefits of obtaining “more information” against the additional cost and effort of continuing to search (Schmid, 2004)
p. 38
This paper examines the theoretical concepts—role theory, rational choice, and satisficing—by attempting to explain the parameters within which users navigate the complex information-rich environment and determine what and how much information will meet their needs.
p. 39
The information-seeking and -searching research that explicitly addresses the topic of “what is good enough” is scant, though several studies make oblique references to the stopping stage, or to the shifting of directions for want of adequate information. Kraft and Lee (1979, p. 50) propose three stopping rules:
1. The satiation rule, “where the scan is terminated only when the user becomes satiated by finding all the desired number of relevant documents”;
2. The disgust rule, which “allows the scan to be terminated only when the user becomes disgusted by having to examine too many irrelevant documents”; and
3. The combination rule, “which allows the user to be seen as stopping the scan if he/she is satiated by finding the desired number of relevant documents or disgusted by having to examine too many irrelevant documents, whichever comes first.”
p. 42
Ellis characterizes six different types of information activities: starting, chaining, browsing, differentiating, monitoring and extracting. He emphasizes the information- seeking activities, rather than the nature of the problems or criteria used for determining when to stop the information search process. In a subsequent article, Ellis (1997) observes that even in the final stages of writing, individuals may continue the search for information in an attempt to answer unresolved questions or to look for new literature.
p. 43
Undergraduate and graduate students
Situations creating the need to look for information (meeting assignment requirements):
• Writing research reports; and
• Preparing presentations.
Criteria used for stopping the information search (fulfilling assignment requirements):
1. Quantitative criteria:
— Required number of citations was gathered;
— Required number of pages was reached;
— All the research questions were answered; and
— Time available for preparing.
2. Qualitative criteria:
— Accuracy of information;
— Same information repeated in several sources;
— Sufficient information was gathered; and
— Concept understood.
Criteria used for stopping the information search (fulfilling assignment requirements):
1. Quantitative criteria:
— Required number of citations was gathered;
— Required number of pages was reached;
— All the research questions were answered; and
— Time available for preparing.
2. Qualitative criteria:
— Accuracy of information;
— Same information repeated in several sources;
— Sufficient information was gathered; and
— Concept understood.
p. 44
Faculty
Situations creating the need to look for information (meeting teaching needs):
• Preparing lectures and presentations;
• Delivering lectures and presentations;
• Designing and conducting workshops;
• Meeting scholarly and research needs; and
• Writing journal articles, books and grant proposals.
Criteria used for stopping the information search (fulfilling teaching needs):
1. Quantitative criteria:
— Time available for: preparing lectures and presentations; delivering lectures
— And presentations; and designing and conducting workshops; and
— Fulfilling scholarly and research needs.
2. Qualitative criteria:
— Every possible synonym and every combination were searched;
— Representative sample of research was identified;
— Current or cutting-edge research was found;
— Same information was repeated;
— Exhaustive collection of information sources was discovered;
— Colleagues’ feedback was addressed;
— Journal reviewers’ comments were addressed; and
— Publisher’s requirements were met.
1. Quantitative criteria for stopping:
— Requirements are met;
— Time constraints are limited; and
— Coverage of material for publication is verified by colleagues or reviewers.
2. Qualitative criteria for stopping:
— Trustworthy information was located;
— A representative sample of sources was gathered;
— Current information was located;
— Cutting-edge material was located;
— Exhaustive search was performed; and
— Exhaustive collection of information sources was discovered.
p. 53

“Screenagers” and Live Chat Reference: Living Up to the Promise

p. 81

Sense-Making and Synchronicity: Information-Seeking Behaviors of Millennials and Baby Boomers

p. 84 Millennials specific generational features pertinent to libraries and information-seeking include the following:

Immediacy. Collaboration. Experiential learning. Visual orientation. Results orientation.  Confidence.
Rushkoff (1996) described the non-linearity of the thinking patterns of those he terms “children of chaos,” coining the term “screenagers” to describe those who grew up surrounded by television and computers (p. 3).
p. 85
Rational choice theory describes a purposive action whereby individuals judge the costs and benefits of achieving a desired goal (Allingham 1999; Cook and Levi 1990; Coleman and Fararo 1992). Humans, as rational actors, are capable of recognizing and desiring a certain outcome, and of taking action to achieve it. This suggests that information seekers rationally evaluate the benefits of information’s usefulness and credibility, versus the costs in time and effort to find and access it.
Role theory offers a person-in-context framework within the information-seeking situation which situates behaviors in the context of a social system (Mead 1934; Marks 1996). Abercrombie, et al. (1994, p. 360) state, “When people occupy social positions their behavior is determined mainly by what is expected of that position rather than by their own individual characteristics.” Thus the roles of information-seekers in the academic environment influence the expectations for performance and outcomes. For example, faculty would be expected to look for information differently than undergraduate students. Faculty members are considered researchers and experts in their disciplines, while undergraduate students are novices and protégés, roles that place them differently within the organizational structure of the academy (Blumer, 2004; Biddle, 1979; Mead, 1934; Marks, 1996; Marks, 1977).

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more on research in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=research

K12 mobile learning

CoSN Survey: Mobile Learning Top Priority for K–12 IT Leaders

By Richard Chang 04/04/17

https://thejournal.com/articles/2017/04/04/cosn-survey-mobile-learning-top-priority-for-k12-it-leaders.aspx

Mobile learning is the top priority for K–12 IT leaders, according to the fifth annual K–12 IT Leadership Survey published by the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN).

It’s the first time mobile learning ranked as the highest priority in the survey. The No. 2 priority is broadband and network capacity, which ranked first last year, and the No. 3 priority is cybersecurity and privacy, with 62 percent of respondents rating them more important than last year.

  • Understaffing remains a key issue for technology departments in school systems.
  • Single sign-on (SSO) is the most implemented interoperability initiative
  • More than one-third of IT leaders expressed no interest in bring your own device (BYOD) initiatives, up from 20 percent in 2014.
  • Interest in open educational resources (OER) is high
  • Education technology experience is common among IT leaders
  • Strong academic backgrounds are also prevalent among IT leaders.
  • Lack of diversity continues to be an issue for school district technology leaders.

CoSN is a nonprofit association for school system technology leaders. To read or download the full IT leadership survey, visit this CoSN site.

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more on mobile learning in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=mobile+learning

industry 4.0

A Strategist’s Guide to Industry 4.0. Global businesses are about to integrate their operations into a seamless digital whole, and thereby change the world.

https://www.strategy-business.com/article/A-Strategists-Guide-to-Industry-4.0
Industrial revolutions are momentous events. By most reckonings, there have been only three. The first was triggered in the 1700s by the commercial steam engine and the mechanical loom. The harnessing of electricity and mass production sparked the second, around the start of the 20th century. The computer set the third in motion after World War II.
Henning Kagermann, the head of the German National Academy of Science and Engineering (Acatech), did exactly that in 2011, when he used the term Industrie 4.0 to describe a proposed government-sponsored industrial initiative.
The term Industry 4.0 refers to the combination of several major innovations in digital technology
These technologies include advanced robotics and artificial intelligence; sophisticated sensors; cloud computing; the Internet of Things; data capture and analytics; digital fabrication (including 3D printing); software-as-a-service and other new marketing models; smartphones and other mobile devices; platforms that use algorithms to direct motor vehicles (including navigation tools, ride-sharing apps, delivery and ride services, and autonomous vehicles); and the embedding of all these elements in an interoperable global value chain, shared by many companies from many countries.
Companies that embrace Industry 4.0 are beginning to track everything they produce from cradle to grave, sending out upgrades for complex products after they are sold (in the same way that software has come to be updated). These companies are learning mass customization: the ability to make products in batches of one as inexpensively as they could make a mass-produced product in the 20th century, while fully tailoring the product to the specifications of the purchaser
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adoption industry 4.0 by sector

Three aspects of digitization form the heart of an Industry 4.0 approach.

• The full digitization of a company’s operations

•  The redesign of products and services

•  Closer interaction with customers

Making Industry 4.0 work requires major shifts in organizational practices and structures. These shifts include new forms of IT architecture and data management, new approaches to regulatory and tax compliance, new organizational structures, and — most importantly — a new digitally oriented culture, which must embrace data analytics as a core enterprise capability.

Klaus Schwab put it in his recent book The Fourth Industrial Revolution (World Economic Forum, 2016), “Contrary to the previous industrial revolutions, this one is evolving at an exponential rather than linear pace.… It is not only changing the ‘what’ and the ‘how’ of doing things, but also ‘who’ we are.”

This great integrating force is gaining strength at a time of political fragmentation — when many governments are considering making international trade more difficult. It may indeed become harder to move people and products across some national borders. But Industry 4.0 could overcome those barriers by enabling companies to transfer just their intellectual property, including their software, while letting each nation maintain its own manufacturing networks.
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more on the Internet of Things in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=internet+of+things

also Digital Learning

http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2017/03/28/digital-learning/

7 blogging tools

7 Blogging Tools for Teachers Compared and Ranked – Updated for 2017

http://www.freetech4teachers.com/2017/02/7-blogging-tools-for-teachers-compared.html

here as a Google Doc

1. Blogger – It’s free and easy to set-up. It can be integrated into your Google Apps for Education account which means that you and your students can use the same usernames and passwords that they use in all other Google tools. You can make your blog private (up to 100 members invited by email). The drawback to it is that a lot of school filters flag it as “social media” and block it on those grounds.

1a. Edublogs – Probably the best option for elementary school and middle school use. Blogs and individual blog posts can be made private, password-protected, or public. You can create and manage your students’ accounts. The latest version of Edublogs allows all users to include videos in blog posts. Outstanding customer support.

2. Weebly for Education – It’s free to have up to 40 students in your account. You can manage your students’ accounts. You can have students contribute to a group blog and or let them manage their own individual blogs.

3. SeeSaw.me – SeeSaw was originally launched as a digital portfolio tool. The addition of a blogging component was made in January 2016. The blogging component of SeeSaw allows you to import and display your students’ digital artifacts publicly or privately. There is not much you can do with SeeSaw in terms of customization of layout and color scheme.

4. WordPress.org – If you have the technical accumen or the time to learn it (it’s not that hard), self-hosting a blog that runs on WordPress software will give you the ultimate in control and flexibility. You will be able to create and manage student accounts, have a nearly infinite variety of customizations, and you’ll be able to move your blog from server to server whenever you want to. That said, you will have to pay for hosting (or convince your school to give you server space) and you will be responsible for maintaining security updates and backing-up your blog regularly.

5. Kidblog – Allows you to manage your students’ accounts. Requires you to pay for a subscription in order to get the features that you really want. Those features include embedding videos and other media from third party sites. Powered by WordPress software.

6. WordPress.com – It’s easy to use and is free, but with some serious limitations at the free level. The free version displays advertising on your blog which you cannot control. The free version also doesn’t allow embedding content from many third-party sites.

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more on blogging in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=blog

against government hackers

How to defend against government hackers

By Mark Rockwell Mar 31, 2017

https://fcw.com/articles/2017/03/31/rule41-aclu-defense-cyber.aspx

The 188-page “Challenging Government Hacking In Criminal Cases” report, released by the American Civil Liberties Union on March 30, addresses new amendments to Rule 41 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, which took effect last December.

Under the changes to criminal procedure rules, feds can remotely search computers in multiple jurisdictions with a single warrant. The rules are touted by law enforcement agencies as a way to streamline 100-year-old rules of criminal procedure

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more on surveillance in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=surveillance

qualitative method research

Qualitative Method Research

quote

Data treatment and analysis

Because the questionnaire data comprised both Likert scales and open questions, they were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Textual data (open responses) were qualitatively analyzed by coding: each segment (e.g. a group of words) was assigned to a semantic reference category, as systematically and rigorously as possible. For example, “Using an iPad in class really motivates me to learn” was assigned to the category “positive impact on motivation.” The qualitative analysis was performed using an adapted version of the approaches developed by L’Écuyer (1990) and Huberman and Miles (1991, 1994). Thus, we adopted a content analysis approach using QDAMiner software, which is widely used in qualitative research (see Fielding, 2012; Karsenti, Komis, Depover, & Collin, 2011). For the quantitative analysis, we used SPSS 22.0 software to conduct descriptive and inferential statistics. We also conducted inferential statistics to further explore the iPad’s role in teaching and learning, along with its motivational effect. The results will be presented in a subsequent report (Fievez, & Karsenti, 2013)

Fievez, A., & Karsenti, T. (2013). The iPad in Education: uses, benefits and challenges. A survey of 6057 students and 302 teachers in Quebec, Canada (p. 51). Canada Research Chair in Technologies in Education. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/5366978/The_iPad_in_Education_uses_benefits_and_challenges._A_survey_of_6057_students_and_302_teachers_in_Quebec_Canada

unquote

 The 20th century notion of conducting a qualitative research by an oral interview and then processing manually your results had triggered in the second half of the 20th century [sometimes] condescending attitudes by researchers from the exact sciences.
The reason was the advent of computing power in the second half of the 20th century, which allowed exact sciences to claim “scientific” and “data-based” results.
One of the statistical package, SPSS, is today widely known and considered a magnificent tools to bring solid statistically-based argumentation, which further perpetuates the superiority of quantitative over qualitative method.
At the same time, qualitative researchers continue to lag behind, mostly due to the inertia of their approach to qualitative analysis. Qualitative analysis continues to be processed in the olden ways. While there is nothing wrong with the “olden” ways, harnessing computational power can streamline the “olden ways” process and even present options, which the “human eye” sometimes misses.
Below are some suggestions, you may consider, when you embark on the path of qualitative research.
The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research
Florian Kohlbacher
http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/75/153

excellent guide to the structure of a qualitative research

Palys, T., & Atchison, C. (2012). Qualitative Research in the Digital Era: Obstacles and Opportunities. International Journal Of Qualitative Methods, 11(4), 352-367.
http://login.libproxy.stcloudstate.edu/login?qurl=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.ebscohost.com%2flogin.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26db%3dkeh%26AN%3d89171709%26site%3dehost-live%26scope%3dsite
Palys and Atchison (2012) present a compelling case to bring your qualitative research to the level of the quantitative research by using modern tools for qualitative analysis.
1. The authors correctly promote NVivo as the “jaguar’ of the qualitative research method tools. Be aware, however, about the existence of other “Geo Metro” tools, which, for your research, might achieve the same result (see bottom of this blog entry).
2. The authors promote a new type of approach to Chapter 2 doctoral dissertation and namely OCR-ing PDF articles (most of your literature as of 2017 is mostly either in PDF or electronic textual format) through applications such as
Abbyy Fine Reader, https://www.abbyy.com/en-us/finereader/
OmniPage,  http://www.nuance.com/for-individuals/by-product/omnipage/index.htm
Readirus http://www.irislink.com/EN-US/c1462/Readiris-16-for-Windows—OCR-Software.aspx
The text from the articles is processed either through NVIVO or related programs (see bottom of this blog entry). As the authors propose: ” This is immediately useful for literature review and proposal writing, and continues through the research design, data gathering, and analysis stages— where NVivo’s flexibility for many different sources of data (including audio, video, graphic, and text) are well known—of writing for publication” (p. 353).
In other words, you can try to wrap your head around huge amount of textual information, but you can also approach the task by a parallel process of processing the same text with a tool.
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Here are some suggestions for Computer Assisted / Aided Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) for a small and a large community applications):

– RQDA (the small one): http://rqda.r-forge.r-project.org/ (see on youtube the tutorials of Metin Caliskan); one active developper.
GATE (the large one): http://gate.ac.uk/ | https://gate.ac.uk/download/

text mining: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Text_mining
Text mining, also referred to as text data mining, roughly equivalent to text analytics, is the process of deriving high-quality information from text. High-quality information is typically derived through the devising of patterns and trends through means such as statistical pattern learning. Text mining usually involves the process of structuring the input text (usually parsing, along with the addition of some derived linguistic features and the removal of others, and subsequent insertion into a database), deriving patterns within the structured data, and finally evaluation and interpretation of the output.
https://ischool.syr.edu/infospace/2013/04/23/what-is-text-mining/
Qualitative data is descriptive data that cannot be measured in numbers and often includes qualities of appearance like color, texture, and textual description. Quantitative data is numerical, structured data that can be measured. However, there is often slippage between qualitative and quantitative categories. For example, a photograph might traditionally be considered “qualitative data” but when you break it down to the level of pixels, which can be measured.
word of caution, text mining doesn’t generate new facts and is not an end, in and of itself. The process is most useful when the data it generates can be further analyzed by a domain expert, who can bring additional knowledge for a more complete picture. Still, text mining creates new relationships and hypotheses for experts to explore further.

quick and easy:

intermediate:

advanced:

http://tidytextmining.com/

Introduction to GATE Developer  https://youtu.be/o5uhMF15vsA


 

use of RapidMiner:

https://rapidminer.com/pricing/

– Coding Analysis Toolkit (CAT) from University of Pittsburgh and University of Massachusetts
– Raven’s Eye is an online natural language ANALYSIS tool based
– ATLAS.TI
– XSIGTH

– QDA Miner: http://provalisresearch.com/products/qualitative-data-analysis-software/

There is also a free version called QDA Miner Lite with limited functionalities: http://provalisresearch.com/products/qualitative-data-analysis-software/freeware/

– MAXQDA

–  NVivo

– SPSS Text Analytics

– Kwalitan

– Transana (include video transcribing capability)

– XSight

– Nud*ist

(Cited from: https://www.researchgate.net/post/Are_there_any_open-source_alternatives_to_Nvivo [accessed Apr 1, 2017].

– OdinText

IBM Watson Conversation
IBM Watson Text to Speech
Google Translate API
MeTA
LingPipe
NLP4J
Timbl
Colibri Core
CRF++
Frog
Ucto
– CRFsuite

– FoLiA
PyNLPl
openNLP
NLP Compromise
MALLET
Cited from: https://www.g2crowd.com/products/nvivo/competitors/alternatives [accessed April 1, 2017
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AP stylebook and they

AP Stylebook Embraces ‘They’ as Singular, Gender-Neutral Pronoun

http://www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/ap-stylebook-embraces-they-singular-gender-neutral-pronoun-n739076

In its latest edition, the Associated Press Stylebook — a widely used reference for journalists — is embracing the use of “they” as a singular pronoun.

more on proofreading in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=proofreading

academic search engines

Educational Technology and Mobile Learning educatorstechnology.com · Dec 23, 2016

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/71072500350222752/

10 Great Academic Search Engines for Research Students

https://scholar.google.com/ | https://eric.ed.gov/ | http://www.virtuallrc.com/ | http://www.citeulike.org/ | http://jurn.org/  |   http://academic.research.microsoft.com/  | https://www.loc.gov/  |  https://www.refseek.com/  |  http://www.sciencedirect.com/  | https://www.academia.edu/  |  https://www.researchgate.net/

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more about research in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=research

fake news resources

Fake News: A Library Resource Round-Up

February 23, 2017 By  ALA Public Programs Office
http://www.programminglibrarian.org/articles/fake-news-library-round
https://www.pinterest.com/pin/218917231867987168
Evaluating Information,” ALA LibGuide
Fake News,” Indiana University East Campus Library

From
Mike Caulfield’s Web Literacy for Student Fact-Checkers
(https://webliteracy.pressbooks.com/)
Fact-Checking Organizations

There are many fact-checking sites outside the U.S. Here is a small sample.

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An Extremely Helpful List of Fake and Misleading News Sites to Watch Out For

By   

http://nymag.com/selectall/2016/11/fake-facebook-news-sites-to-avoid.html

https://www.pinterest.com/pin/237776055306492834

https://docs.google.com/document/d/10eA5-mCZLSS4MQY5QGb5ewC3VAL6pLkT53V_81ZyitM/preview

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UW professor: The information war is real, and we’re losing it

http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/politics/uw-professor-the-information-war-is-real-and-were-losing-it/

Starbird argues in a new paper, set to be presented at a computational social-science conference in May, that these “strange clusters” of wild conspiracy talk, when mapped, point to an emerging alternative media ecosystem on the web of surprising power and reach.

It features sites such as Infowars.com, hosted by informal President Donald Trump adviser Alex Jones

There are dozens of other conspiracy-propagating websites such as beforeitsnews.com, nodisinfo.com and veteranstoday.com.

It isn’t a traditional left-right political axis, she found. There are right-wing sites like Danger & Play and left-wing sensationalizers such as The Free Thought Project. Some appear to be just trying to make money, while others are aggressively pushing political agendas.

The true common denominator, she found, is anti-globalism — deep suspicion of free trade, multinational business and global institutions.

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The News Literacy Project

http://www.thenewsliteracyproject.org/

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more on fake news in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=fake+news

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