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digital literacy chemistry course

Summer 2020 course for high school teachers

Tuesday, June 22020, Dr. Bruce Jacobson

    1. How (where from) do you receive your news? Do you think you are able to distinguish real news from fake news?
      1. Last year, researchers at Oxford Universityfound that 70 countries had political disinformation campaigns over two years.
        http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2020/01/20/bots-and-disinformation/
      2. according to Pew Research Center, 68 percent of American adults get their news from social media—platforms where opinion is often presented as fact.
        results of the international test revealed that only 14 percent of U.S. students were able to reliably distinguish between fact and opinion.

    http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2020/01/16/fake-news-prevention/

    News and Media Literacy (and the lack of) is not very different from Information Literacy

An “information literate” student is able to “locate, evaluate, and effectively use information from diverse sources.” See more About Information Literacy

    1. Developing Your Research Topic/Question

    Research always starts with a question. But the success of your research also depends on how you formulate that question. If your topic is too broad or too narrow, you may have trouble finding information when you search. When developing your question/topic, consider the following:

    • Is my question one that is likely to have been researched and for which data have been published? Believe it or not, not every topic has been researched and/or published in the literature.
    • Be flexible. Consider broadening or narrowing the topic if you are getting a limited number or an overwhelming number of results when you search. In nursing it can be helpful to narrow by thinking about a specific population (gender, age, disease or condition, etc.), intervention, or outcome.
    • Discuss your topic with your professor and be willing to alter your topic according to the guidance you receive.

    1. Getting Ready for Research
      Library Resources vs. the Internet
      How (where from) do you receive information about your professional interests?
      Advantages/disadvantages of using Web Resources

    Evaluating Web Resources

    1. Google or similar; Yahoo, Bing
    2. Google Scholar
    3. Reddit, Digg, Quora
    4. Wikipedia
    5. Become a member of professional organizations and use their online information
    6. Use the SCSU library page to online databases

    1. Building Your List of Keywords
      1. Why Keyword Searching?
        Why not just type in a phrase or sentence like you do in Google or Yahoo!?

        1. Because most electronic databases store and retrieve information differently than Internet search engines.
        2. A databases searches fields within a collection of records. These fields include the information commonly found in a citation plus an abstract (if available) and subject headings. Search engines search web content which is typically the full text of sources.
      1. The bottom line: you get better results in a database by using effective keyword search strategies.
      2. To develop an effective search strategy, you need to:
    1. determine the key concepts in your topic and
    2. develop a good list of keyword synonyms.
      1. Why use synonyms?
        Because there is more than one way to express a concept or idea. You don’t know if the article you’re looking for uses the same expression for a key concept that you are using.
      2. Consider: Will an author use:
    1. Hypertension or High Blood Pressure?
    2. Teach or Instruct?
    • Therapy or Treatment?

    Don’t get “keyword lock!” Be willing to try a different term as a keyword. If you are having trouble thinking of synonyms, check a thesaurus, dictionary, or reference book for ideas.

    Keyword worksheet

  1. Library Resources
    How to find the SCSU Library Website
    SCSU online databases

    1. SCSU Library Web page

library

 

 

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Test your knowledge:

******* !! *************

  1. Basic Research Skills

  1. Identifying a Scholarly Source

 

 

 

  1. Boolean Operators

  1. Databases

  1. How do you evaluate a source of information to determine if it is appropriate for academic/scholarly use. There is no set “checklist” to complete but below are some criteria to consider when you are evaluating a source.
    1. ACCURACY
      1. Does the author cite reliable sources?
      2. How does the information compare with that in other works on the topic?
      3. Can you determine if the information has gone through peer-review?
      4. Are there factual, spelling, typographical, or grammatical errors?
    1. AUDIENCE
      1. Who do you think the authors are trying to reach?
      2. Is the language, vocabulary, style and tone appropriate for intended audience?
      3. What are the audience demographics? (age, educational level, etc.)
      4. Are the authors targeting a particular group or segment of society?
    1. AUTHORITY
      1. Who wrote the information found in the article or on the site?
      2. What are the author’s credentials/qualifications for this particular topic?
      3. Is the author affiliated with a particular organization or institution?
      4. What does that affiliation suggest about the author?
    1. CURRENCY
      1. Is the content current?
      2. Does the date of the information directly affect the accuracy or usefulness of the information?
    1. OBJECTIVITY/BIAS
      1. What is the author’s or website’s point of view?
      2. Is the point of view subtle or explicit?
      3. Is the information presented as fact or opinion?
      4. If opinion, is the opinion supported by credible data or informed argument?
      5. Is the information one-sided?
      6. Are alternate views represented?
      7. Does the point of view affect how you view the information?
    1. PURPOSE
      1. What is the author’s purpose or objective, to explain, provide new information or news, entertain, persuade or sell?
      2. Does the purpose affect how you view the information presented?
  1. Exporting bibliography records

Zotero. Zotero AddOn for Chrome and Firefox. Zotero for Microsoft Word. Zotero AddOn for Edublog.
Collecting references

  • through the Zotero AddOn for browsers
  • through “export RIS” file

RIS zotero

 

  1. InterLibrary Loan

  1. Copyright and Fair Use
    Author Rights and Publishing & Finding Author Instructions for Publishing in Scholarly Journals

    1. Plagiarism, academic honesty
  2. Writing Tips
  3. Dissemination of Research

Plamen Miltenoff, Ph.D., MLIS, Professor
320-308-3072
pmiltenoff@stcloudstate.edu
schedule a meeting: https://doodle.com/digitalliteracy
find my office: https://youtu.be/QAng6b_FJqs
http://web.stcloudstate.edu/pmiltenoff/faculty/

VR chemistry

MEL Science Launches Virtual Reality Chemistry Lessons

By Richard Chang 06/15/17

https://thejournal.com/articles/2017/06/15/mel-science-launches-virtual-reality-chemistry-lessons.aspx

MEL Science, based in London, has launched a series of virtual reality (VR) chemistry lessons for K–12. The 3-year-old company this week released a MEL Chemistry VR app, featuring a virtual chemistry lab, for free on Google Daydream. This free version, which contains the first six chemistry lessons, is available at this MEL Science site.

MEL Science aims to release more than 150 lessons covering all the main topics included in K–12 schools’ chemistry curriculum. Later this year, MEL Science also aims to add support for other VR platforms, including Google Cardboard and Samsung Gear VR.

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more on VR in education in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=virtual+reality

reactive reality

https://www.linkedin.com/posts/kimflintoff_reactive-realities-vr-in-the-chemistry-classroom-activity-6612941264637788160-LVnn

Reactive realities: VR in the chemistry classroom

“VR gives a superior sense of what is happening in the molecular world – you can zoom in and out, and move around in an intuitive way. It makes it much easier to see molecular structures and key parts of a reaction, which is not done as well via other modes,”

Each learning activity led a pair of students through a series of tasks. They built a molecule, then followed the journey of the enzyme reaction.

Students found the ‘tactile’ experience of VR engaging and they were able to quickly build and move molecules to see how they interacted. Watching the students walk around, bend over and peer around virtual objects was a highlight for the team.

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more on VR in this IMS blog
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=virtual+reality

proctoring and online learning

https://www.edsurge.com/news/2017-04-19-online-courses-shouldn-t-use-remote-proctoring-tools-here-s-why

when the option between taking a course online or in-person is provided, studies show students are more likely to stay in college.

Since the early days of online instruction, the response of many new instructors has been to figure out how to transfer elements of their face-to-face class into the online format. In response, education technology companies have been quick to create products that attempt to replicate in-person teaching. Some examples include learning management systems, lecture capture tools, and early online meeting systems.

online proctoring systems, such as ProctorU or Proctorio, replicate a practice that isn’t effective in-person. Exams are only good for a few things: managing faculty workload and assessing low level skill and content knowledge. What they aren’t good at is demonstrating student learning or mastery of a topic. As authors Rena Palloff and Keith Pratt discuss in their book “Assessing the Online Learner: Resources and Strategies for Faculty,” online exams typically measure skills that require memorization of facts, whereas learning objectives are often written around one’s ability to create, evaluate and analyze course material.

Authentic assessments, rather than multiple choice or other online exams, is one alternative that could be explored. For example, in a chemistry course, students could make a video themselves doing a set problems and explain the process. This would allow instructors to better understand students’ thinking and identify areas that they are struggling in. Another example could be in a psychology course, where students could curate and evaluate a set of resources on a given topic to demonstrate their ability to find, and critically analyze online information. (see Bryan Alexander‘s take on video assignments here: http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=bryan+alexander+video+assignments

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more on online learning in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=online+learning

more on proctoring in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=proctor

10 Oculus Go apps

10 Oculus Go Virtual Reality Apps to Try in the Classroom

By Jaime Donally (Columnist)     Jan 4, 2019

https://www.edsurge.com/news/2019-01-04-10-oculus-go-virtual-reality-apps-to-try-in-the-classroom

Looking Glass (FREE)

Wonderful You (FREE)

MasterWorks: Journey Through History (FREE)

Gala360 See the World – Camp Fire in Paradise (FREE)

MEL Chemistry Labs (FREE)

Calcflow (FREE)

CoSpaces (FREE)

Anne Frank House VR (FREE)

AltSpace (FREE)

Concerns to Consider

nausea
full shutdown of the device is somewhat tricky and can drain your battery quickly
Oculus is releasing their upcoming device, called the Quest

 

International Conference on Learning Athens Greece

Twenty-fifth International Conference on Learning

2018 Special Focus: Education in a Time of Austerity and Social Turbulence  21–23 June 2018 University of Athens, Athens, Greece http://thelearner.com/2018-conference

Theme 8: Technologies in Learning

  • Technology and human values: learning through and about technology
  • Crossing the digital divide: access to learning in, and about, the digital world
  • New tools for learning: online digitally mediated learning
  • Virtual worlds, virtual classrooms: interactive, self-paced and autonomous learning
  • Ubiquitous learning: using the affordances of the new mediaDistance learning: reducing the distance

Theme 9: Literacies Learning

  • Defining new literacies
  • Languages of power: literacy’s role in social access
  • Instructional responses to individual differences in literacy learning
  • The visual and the verbal: Multiliteracies and multimodal communications
  • Literacy in learning: language in learning across the subject areas
  • The changing role of libraries in literacies learning
  • Languages education and second language learning
  • Multilingual learning for a multicultural world
  • The arts and design in multimodal learning
  • The computer, internet, and digital media: educational challenges and responses

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PROPOSAL: Paper presentation in a Themed Session

Title

Virtual Reality and Gamification in the Educational Process: The Experience from an Academic Library

short description

VR, AR and Mixed Reality, as well as gaming and gamification are proposed as sandbox opportunity to transition from a lecture-type instruction to constructivist-based methods.

long description

The NMC New Horizon Report 2017 predicts a rapid application of Video360 in K12. Millennials are leaving college, Gen Z students are our next patrons. Higher Education needs to meet its new students on “their playground.” A collaboration by a librarian and VR specialist is testing the opportunities to apply 360 degree movies and VR in academic library orientation. The team seeks to bank on the inheriting interest of young patrons toward these technologies and their inextricable part of a rapidly becoming traditional gaming environment. A “low-end,” inexpensive and more mobile Google Cardboard solution was preferred to HTC Vive, Microsoft HoloLens or comparable hi-end VR, AR and mixed reality products.

The team relies on the constructivist theory of assisting students in building their knowledge in their own pace and on their own terms, rather than being lectured and/or being guided by a librarian during a traditional library orientation tour. Using inexpensive Google Cardboard goggles, students can explore a realistic set up of the actual library and familiarize themselves with its services. Students were polled on the effectiveness of such approach as well as on their inclination to entertain more comprehensive version of library orientation. Based on the lessons from this experiment, the team intends to pursue also a standardized approach to introducing VR to other campus services, thus bringing down further the cost of VR projects on campus. The project is considered a sandbox for academic instruction across campus. The same concept can be applied for [e.g., Chemistry, Physics, Biology) lab tours; for classes, which anticipate preliminary orientation process.

Following the VR orientation, the traditional students’ library instruction, usually conducted in a room, is replaced by a dynamic gamified library instruction. Students are split in groups of three and conduct a “scavenger hunt”; students use a jQuery-generated Web site on their mobile devices to advance through “hoops” of standard information literacy test. E.g., they need to walk to the Reference Desk, collect specific information and log their findings in the Web site. The idea follows the strong interest in the educational world toward gaming and gamification of the educational process. This library orientation approach applies the three principles for gamification: empowers learners; teaches problem solving and increases understanding.
Similarly to the experience with VR for library orientation, this library instruction process is used as a sandbox and has been successfully replicated by other instructors in their classes.

Keywords

academic library

literacies learning

digitally mediated learning

 

pedagogically sound Minecraft examples

FridayLive!! Oct 27 THIS WEEK 2:00 PM EDT 

Minecraft for Higher Ed? Try it. Pros, Cons, Recommendations? 

Description: Why Minecraft, the online video game? How can Minecraft improve learning for higher education?
We’ll begin with a live demo in which all can participate (see “Minecraft for Free”).
We’ll review “Examples, Not Rumors” of successful adaptations and USES of Minecraft for teaching/learning in higher education. Especially those submitted in advance
And we’ll try to extract from these activities a few recommendations/questions/requests re Minecraft in higher education.

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Examples:

Minecraft Education Edition: https://education.minecraft.net/
(more info: http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2017/05/23/minecraft-education-edition/)

K12: 

Minecraft empathy skillshttp://www.gettingsmart.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/How-Minecraft-Supports-SEL.pdf 

coding w MineCraft

Minecraft for Math

Higher Ed: 

Minecraft Higher Education?

Using MCEE in Higher Education

Why NOT to use minecraft in education:

https://higheredrevolution.com/why-educators-probably-shouldn-t-use-minecraft-in-their-classrooms-989f525c6e62

College Students Get Virtual Look at the Real World with ‘Minecraft’

Carnegie Mellon University uses the game-based learning tool to help students demonstrate engineering skills. SEP182017

https://edtechmagazine.com/higher/article/2017/09/college-students-get-virtual-look-real-world-minecraft

Using Minecraft in Higher Education

https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/minecraft-teachers/cED6MM0E0bQ

Using MinecraftEdu – Part 1 – Introduction

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lsfd9J5UgVk

Physics with Minecraft example

Chemistry with Minecraft example

Biology

other disciplines

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Does learning really happen w Minecraft?

Callaghan, N. (2016). Investigating the role of Minecraft in educational learning environments. Educational Media International53(4), 244-260. doi:10.1080/09523987.2016.1254877

http://login.libproxy.stcloudstate.edu/login?qurl=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.ebscohost.com%2flogin.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26db%3dkeh%26AN%3d119571817%26site%3dehost-live%26scope%3dsite

Noelene Callaghan dissects the evolution in Australian education from a global perspective. She rightfully draws attention (p. 245) to inevitable changes in the educational world, which still remain ignored: e.g., the demise of “traditional” LMS (Educase is calling for their replacement with digital learning environments http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2017/07/06/next-gen-digital-learning-environment/ and so does the corporate world of learning: http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2017/03/28/digital-learning/ ), the inevitability of BYOD (mainly by the “budget restrictions and sustainability challenges” (p. 245); by the assertion of cloud computing, and, last but not least, by the gamification of education.

p. 245 literature review. In my paper, I am offering more comprehensive literature review. While Callaghan focuses on the positive, my attempt is to list both pros and cons: http://scsu.mn/1F008Re

 

  1. 246 General use of massive multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs)

levels of interaction have grown dramatically and have led to the creation of general use of massive multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs)

  1. 247 In teaching and learning environments, affordances associated with edugames within a project-based learning (PBL) environment permit:
  • (1)  Learner-centered environments
  • (2)  Collaboration
  • (3)  Curricular content
  • (4)  Authentic tasks
  • (5)  Multiple expression modes
  • (6)  Emphasis on time management
  • (7)  Innovative assessment (Han & Bhattacharya, 2001).

These affordances develop both social and cognitive abilities of students

 

Nebel, S., Schneider, S., Beege, M., Kolda, F., Mackiewicz, V., & Rey, G. (2017). You cannot do this alone! Increasing task interdependence in cooperative educational videogames to encourage collaboration. Educational Technology Research & Development65(4), 993-1014. doi:10.1007/s11423-017-9511-8

http://login.libproxy.stcloudstate.edu/login?qurl=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.ebscohost.com%2flogin.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26db%3dkeh%26AN%3d124132216%26site%3dehost-live%26scope%3dsite

Abrams, S. S., & Rowsell, J. (2017). Emotionally Crafted Experiences: Layering Literacies in Minecraft. Reading Teacher70(4), 501-506.

Nebel, S., Schneider, S., & Daniel Rey, G. (2016). Mining Learning and Crafting Scientific Experiments: A Literature Review on the Use of Minecraft in Education and Research. Source: Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 19(192), 355–366. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/jeductechsoci.19.2.355

Cipollone, M., Schifter, C. C., & Moffat, R. A. (2014). Minecraft as a Creative Tool: A Case Study. International Journal Of Game-Based Learning4(2), 1-14.

http://login.libproxy.stcloudstate.edu/login?qurl=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.ebscohost.com%2flogin.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26db%3deric%26AN%3dEJ1111251%26site%3dehost-live%26scope%3dsite

Niemeyer, D. J., & Gerber, H. R. (2015). Maker culture and Minecraft : implications for the future of learning. Educational Media International52(3), 216-226. doi:10.1080/09523987.2015.1075103

http://login.libproxy.stcloudstate.edu/login?qurl=http%3a%2f%2fsearch.ebscohost.com%2flogin.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26db%3dkeh%26AN%3d111240626%26site%3dehost-live%26scope%3dsite

Nebel, S., Schneider, S., & Daniel Rey, G. (2016). Mining Learning and Crafting Scientific Experiments: A Literature Review on the Use of Minecraft in Education and Research. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 19(192), 355–366. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/jeductechsoci.19.2.355

 

Wilkinson, B., Williams, N., & Armstrong, P. (2013). Improving Student Understanding, Application and Synthesis of Computer Programming Concepts with Minecraft. In The European Conference on Technology in the Classroom 2013. Retrieved from http://iafor.info/archives/offprints/ectc2013-offprints/ECTC2013_0477.pdf

Berg Marklund, B., & Alklind Taylor, A.-S. (2015). Teachers’ Many Roles in Game-Based Learning Projects. In Academic Conferences International Limited (pp. 359–367). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/openview/15e084a1c52fdda188c27b9d2de6d361/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=396495

Uusi-Mäkelä, M., & Uusi-Mäkelä, M. (2014). Immersive Language Learning with Games: Finding Flow in MinecraftEdu. EdMedia: World Conference on Educational Media and Technology (Vol. 2014). Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved from https://www.learntechlib.org/noaccess/148409/

Birt, J., & Hovorka, D. (2014). Effect of mixed media visualization on learner perceptions and outcomes. In 25th Australasian Conference on Information Systems (pp. 1–10). Retrieved from http://epublications.bond.edu.au/fsd_papers/74

Al Washmi, R., Bana, J., Knight, I., Benson, E., Afolabi, O., Kerr, A., Hopkins, G. (2014). Design of a Math Learning Game Using a Minecraft Mod. https://doi.org/10.13140/2.1.4660.4809
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267135810_Design_of_a_Math_Learning_Game_Using_a_Minecraft_Mod
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1uch2iC_CGsESdF9lpATGwWkamNbqQ7JOYEu_D-V03LQ/edit?usp=sharing

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more on Minecraft in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=minecraft

Robert Paxton

The Cultural Axis

The Nazi-Fascist New Order for European Culture

by Benjamin G. Martin
Harvard University Press, 370 pp., $39.95
“When I hear the word ‘culture,’ I reach for my revolver.”
Kultur, he explains (along with Bildung, or education), denoted in pre-unification Germany those qualities that the intellectuals and professionals of the small, isolated German middle class claimed for themselves in response to the disdain of the minor German nobles who employed them: intellectual achievement, of course, but also simple virtues like authenticity, honesty, and sincerity.
German courtiers, by contrast, according to the possessors of Kultur, had acquired “civilization” from their French tutors: manners, social polish, the cultivation of appearances. As the German middle class asserted itself in the nineteenth century, the particular virtues of Kultur became an important ingredient in national self-definition. The inferior values of “civilization” were no longer attributed to an erstwhile French-educated German nobility, but to the French themselves and to the West in general.
By 1914, the contrast between Kultur and Zivilisation had taken on a more aggressively nationalist tone. During World War I German patriotic propaganda vaunted the superiority of Germany’s supposedly rooted, organic, spiritual Kultur over the allegedly effete, shallow, cosmopolitan, materialist, Jewish-influenced “civilization” of Western Europe. Martin’s book shows how vigorously the Nazis applied this traditional construct.
Goebbels and Hitler were as obsessed with movies as American adolescents are today with social media.
Music was a realm that Germans felt particularly qualified to dominate. But first the German national musical scene had to be properly organized. In November 1933 Goebbels offered Richard Strauss the leadership of a Reich Music Chamber.
Goebbels organized in Düsseldorf in 1938 a presentation of “degenerate music” following the better-known 1937 exhibition of “degenerate art.”
As with music, the Nazis were able to attract writers outside the immediate orbit of the Nazi and Fascist parties by endorsing conservative literary styles against modernism, by mitigating copyright and royalty problems, and by offering sybaritic visits to Germany and public attention.
Painting and sculpture, curiously, do not figure in this account of the cultural fields that the Nazis and Fascists tried to reorganize “inter-nationally,” perhaps because they had not previously been organized on liberal democratic lines. Picasso and Kandinsky painted quietly in private and Jean Bazaine organized an exhibition with fellow modernists in 1941. Nazi cultural officials thought “degenerate” art appropriate for France.
Science would have made an interesting case study, a contrary one. Germany dominated the world of science before 1933. Germans won fifteen Nobel Prizes in physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine between 1918 and 1933, more than any other nation. Far from capitalizing on this major soft power asset, Hitler destroyed it by imposing ideological conformity and expelling Jewish scientists such as the talented nuclear physicist Lise Meitner. The soft power of science is fragile, as Americans may yet find out.
American soft power thrived mostly through the profit motive and by offering popular entertainment to the young.

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The Original Axis of Evil

THE ANATOMY   OF FASCISM By Robert O. Paxton. 321 pp. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. $26.

fascism — unlike Communism, socialism, capitalism or conservatism — is a smear word more often used to brand one’s foes than it is a descriptor used to shed light on them.

World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 contributed mightily to the advent of fascism. The war generated acute economic malaise, national humiliation and legions of restive veterans and unemployed youths who could be harnessed politically. The Bolshevik Revolution, but one symptom of the frustration with the old order, made conservative elites in Italy and Germany so fearful of Communism that anything — even fascism — came to seem preferable to a Marxist overthrow.

Paxton debunks the consoling fiction that Mussolini and Hitler seized power. Rather, conservative elites desperate to subdue leftist populist movements ”normalized” the fascists by inviting them to share power. It was the mob that flocked to fascism, but the elites who elevated it.

Fascist movements and regimes are different from military dictatorships and authoritarian regimes. They seek not to exclude, but rather to enlist, the masses. They often collapse the distinction between the public and private sphere (eliminating the latter). In the words of Robert Ley, the head of the Nazi Labor Office, the only private individual who existed in Nazi Germany was someone asleep.

t was this need to keep citizens intoxicated by fascism’s dynamism that made Mussolini and Hitler see war as both desirable and necessary. ”War is to men,” Mussolini insisted, ”as maternity is to women.”

For every official American attempt to link Islamic terrorism to fascism, there is an anti-Bush protest that applies the fascist label to Washington’s nationalist rhetoric, assault on civil liberties and warmaking.

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Is Fascism Back?

https://www.project-syndicate.org/onpoint/is-fascism-back-by-robert-o–paxton-2016-01

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Paxton, R. O. (1998). The five stages of fascism. Journal Of Modern History70(1), 1.

Paxton, R. O. (2012). The Civic Foundations of Fascism in Europe: Italy, Spain and Romania, 1870-1945. New Left Review, (74), 140-144.

Paxton, R. O. (2000). Nationalism, Anti-Semitism and Fascism in France (Book Review). Journal Of Modern History72(3), 814.

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more on history in this IMS blog
http://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=history

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