Searching for "media literacy"

Western Balkans Information & Media Literacy Conference

Western Balkans Information & Media Literacy Conference

organized by LIT Limerick Institute of Technology, Ireland; Bihac, Bosnia

Conference main themes and topics https://www.wbimlc.org/topics

Information Literacy in the modern world

  • From Information Literacy to Digital Scholarship

  • Fake News and Information Literacy

  • Information literacies (media literacy, Research Literacy, digital literacy, visual literacy, financial literacy, health literacy, cyber wellness, infographics, information behavior, trans-literacy, post-literacy)

  • Information Literacy and academic libraries

  • Information Literacy and adult education

  • Information Literacy and blended learning

  • Information Literacy and distance learning

  • Information Literacy and mobile devices

  • Information Literacy and Gamification

  • Information Literacy and public libraries

  • Information Literacy in Primary and Secondary Schools

  • Information Literacy and the Knowledge Economy

  • Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning

  • Information Literacy and the Information Society

  • Information Literacy and the Multimedia Society

  • Information Literacy and the Digital Society

  • Information Literacy in the modern world (e.g trends, emerging technologies and innovation, growth of digital resources, digital reference tools, reference services).

  • The future of Information Literacy

  • Workplace Information Literacy

Librarians as support to the lifelong learning process

  • Digital literacy, Digital Citizenship

  • Digital pedagogy and Information Literacy

  • Information Literacy Needs in the Electronic Resource Environment

  • Integrating Information Literacy into the curriculum

  • Putting Information Literacy theory into practice

  • Information Literacy training and instruction

  • Instructional design and performance for Information Literacy (e.g. teaching practice, session design, lesson plans)

  •  Information Literacy and online learning (e.g. self-paced IL modules, online courses, Library Guides)

  • Information Literacy and Virtual Learning Environments

  • Supporting users need through library 2.0 and beyond

  • Digital empowerment and reference work

  • Information Literacy across the disciplines

  • Information Literacy and digital preservation

  • Innovative IL approaches

  • Student engagement with Information Literacy

  • Action Literacy

  • Information Literacy, Copyright and Intellectual Property

  • Information Literacy and Academic Writing

Media and Information Literacy – theoretical approaches (standards, assessment, collaboration, etc.)

  • The Digital Competence Framework 2.0

  • Information Literacy theory (models, standards, indicators, Moscow Declaration etc.)

  • Information Literacy and Artificial intelligence

  • Information Literacy and information behavior

  • Information Literacy and reference services: cyber reference services, virtual reference services, mobile reference services

  • Information Literacy cultural and contextual approaches

  • Information Literacy and Threshold concepts

  • Information Literacy evaluation and assessment

  • Information Literacy in different cultures and countries including national studies

  • Information Literacy project management

  • Measuring in Information Literacy instruction assessment

New aspects of education/strategic planning, policy, and advocacy for Information Literacy in a digital age

  • Information Literacy and the Digital Divide

  • Policy and Planning for Information Literacy

  • Branding, promotion and marketing for Information Literacy

  • Cross –sectorial; and interdisciplinary collaboration and partnerships for Information Literacy

  • Leadership and Governance for Information Literacy

  • Strategic planning for IL

  • Strategies in e-learning to promote self-directed and sustainable learning in the area of Information Literacy skills.

K12 media literacy

Report: Florida, Ohio called ‘advanced leaders’ in K-12 media literacy efforts

Advocacy group Media Literacy Now says 14 states have laws with “some media-literacy language” and others will consider bills this year, but some say progress “is too slow.”

https://www.educationdive.com/news/report-florida-ohio-called-advanced-leaders-in-k-12-media-literacy-effo/569879/

Erin McNeill, president and board member of Media Literacy Now

Media Literacy Now considers digital citizenship as part of media literacy — not the other way around

nine states — California, Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, Rhode Island and Utah — are identified as “emerging leaders” for “beginning the conversation” and consulting with experts and others.

Calls for increased attention to media literacy skills and demand from educators for training in this area increased following an outbreak of “fake news” reports associated with the 2016 presidential election. Studies and assessments showing students are easily misled by digital information have also contributed to a sense of urgency.

because the topic can fit into multiple content areas, it can also be overlooked because of other pressures on teachers. Media literacy, the group notes, also “encompasses the foundational skills of digital citizenship and internet safety including the norms of appropriate, responsible, ethical, and healthy behavior, and cyberbullying prevention.”

Lawmakers in Missouri and South Carolina have also pre-filed versions of Media Literacy Now’s model bill, the report noted, and legislation is expected in Hawaii and Arizona.

the News Literacy Project and the Center for New Literacy’s summer academy.

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more on media literacy in this iMS blog
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=media+literacy

Media Literacy Digital Citizenship

Making Media Literacy Central to Digital Citizenship

Tanner Higgin, Common Sense Education

https://www.kqed.org/mindshift/49607/making-media-literacy-central-to-digital-citizenship

While we often get distracted by the latest device or platform release, video has quietly been riding the wave of all of these advancements, benefiting from broader access to phones, displays, cameras and, most importantly, bandwidth. In fact, 68 percent of teachers are using video in their classrooms, and 74 percent of middle schoolers are watching videos for learning. From social media streams chock-full of video and GIFs to FaceTime with friends to two-hour Twitch broadcasts, video mediates students’ relationships with each other and the world. Video is a key aspect of our always-online attention economy that’s impacting voting behavior, and fueling hate speech and trolling. Put simply: Video is a contested civic space.

We need to move from a conflation of digital citizenship with internet safety and protectionism to a view of digital citizenship that’s pro-active and prioritizes media literacy and savvy. A good digital citizen doesn’t just dodge safety and privacy pitfalls, but works to remake the world, aided by digital technology like video, so it’s more thoughtful, inclusive and just.

1. Help Students Identify the Intent of What They Watch

equip students with some essential questions they can use to unpack the intentions of anything they encounter. One way to facilitate this thinking is by using a tool like EdPuzzle to edit the videos you want students to watch by inserting these questions at particularly relevant points in the video.

2. Be Aware That the Web Is a Unique Beast

Compared to traditional media (like broadcast TV or movies), the web is the Wild West.

Mike Caulfield’s e-book is a great deep dive into this topic, but as an introduction to web literacy you might first dig into the notion of reading “around” as well as “down” media — that is, encouraging students to not just analyze the specific video or site they’re looking at but related content (e.g., where else an image appears using a reverse Google image search).

3. Turn Active Viewing into Reactive Viewing

Active viewing

For this content, students shouldn’t just be working toward comprehension but critique;

using aclassroom backchannel, like TodaysMeet, during video viewings

4. Transform Students’ Video Critiques into Creations

Digital citizenship should be participatory, meaning students need to be actively contributing to culture. Unfortunately, only 3 percent of the time tweens and teens spend using social media is focused on creation.

facilitating video creation and remix, but two of my favorites are MediaBreaker and Vidcode.

5. Empower Students to Become Advocates

Young people face a challenging and uncertain world, currently run by people who often do not share their views on key issues

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more on Media Literacy in this IMS blog
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=media+literacy

more on digital citizenship in this IMS blog
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=digital+citizenship

media literacy backfire

Did Media Literacy Backfire?

Jan 5, 2017danah boyd

https://points.datasociety.net/did-media-literacy-backfire-7418c084d88d

Understanding what sources to trust is a basic tenet of media literacy education.

Think about how this might play out in communities where the “liberal media” is viewed with disdain as an untrustworthy source of information…or in those where science is seen as contradicting the knowledge of religious people…or where degrees are viewed as a weapon of the elite to justify oppression of working people. Needless to say, not everyone agrees on what makes a trusted source.

Students are also encouraged to reflect on economic and political incentives that might bias reporting. Follow the money, they are told. Now watch what happens when they are given a list of names of major power players in the East Coast news media whose names are all clearly Jewish. Welcome to an opening for anti-Semitic ideology.

In the United States, we believe that worthy people lift themselves up by their bootstraps. This is our idea of freedom. To take away the power of individuals to control their own destiny is viewed as anti-American by so much of this country. You are your own master.

Children are indoctrinated into this cultural logic early, even as their parents restrict their mobility and limit their access to social situations. But when it comes to information, they are taught that they are the sole proprietors of knowledge. All they have to do is “do the research” for themselves and they will know better than anyone what is real.

Combine this with a deep distrust of media sources.

Many marginalized groups are justifiably angry about the ways in which their stories have been dismissed by mainstream media for decades.It took five days for major news outlets to cover Ferguson. It took months and a lot of celebrities for journalists to start discussing the Dakota Pipeline. But feeling marginalized from news media isn’t just about people of color.

Keep in mind that anti-vaxxers aren’t arguing that vaccinations definitively cause autism. They are arguing that we don’t know. They are arguing that experts are forcing children to be vaccinated against their will, which sounds like oppression. What they want is choice — the choice to not vaccinate. And they want information about the risks of vaccination, which they feel are not being given to them. In essence, they are doing what we taught them to do: questioning information sources and raising doubts about the incentives of those who are pushing a single message. Doubt has become tool.

Addressing so-called fake news is going to require a lot more than labeling. It’s going to require a cultural change about how we make sense of information, whom we trust, and how we understand our own role in grappling with information. Quick and easy solutions may make the controversy go away, but they won’t address the underlying problems.

In the United States, we’re moving towards tribalism (see Fukuyama), and we’re undoing the social fabric of our country through polarization, distrust, and self-segregation.

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boyd, danah. (2014). It’s Complicated: The Social Lives of Networked Teens (1 edition). New Haven: Yale University Press.
p. 8 networked publics are publics that are reconstructed by networked technologies. they are both space and imagined community.
p. 11 affordances: persistence, visibility, spreadability, searchability.
p. technological determinism both utopian and dystopian
p. 30 adults misinterpret teens online self-expression.
p. 31 taken out of context. Joshua Meyrowitz about Stokely Charmichael.
p. 43 as teens have embraced a plethora of social environment and helped co-create the norms that underpin them, a wide range of practices has emerged. teens have grown sophisticated with how they manage contexts and present themselves in order to be read by their intended audience.
p. 54 privacy. p. 59 Privacy is a complex concept without a clear definition. Supreme Court Justice Brandeis: the right to be let alone, but also ‘measure of th access others have to you through information, attention, and physical proximity.’
control over access and visibility
p. 65 social steganography. hiding messages in plain sight
p. 69 subtweeting. encoding content
p. 70 living with surveillance . Foucault Discipline and Punish
p. 77 addition. what makes teens obsessed w social media.
p. 81 Ivan Goldberg coined the term internet addiction disorder. jokingly
p. 89 the decision to introduce programmed activities and limit unstructured time is not unwarranted; research has shown a correlation between boredom and deviance.
My interview with Myra, a middle-class white fifteen-year-old from Iowa, turned funny and sad when “lack of time” became a verbal trick in response to every question. From learning Czech to trakc, from orchestra to work in a nursery, she told me that her mother organized “98%” of her daily routine. Myra did not like all of these activities, but her mother thought they were important.
Myra noted that her mother meant well, but she was exhausted and felt socially disconnected because she did not have time to connect with friends outside of class.
p. 100 danger
are sexual predators lurking everywhere
p. 128 bullying. is social media amplifying meanness and cruelty.
p. 131 defining bullying in a digital era. p. 131 Dan Olweus narrowed in the 70s bulling to three components: aggression, repetition and imbalance on power. p. 152 SM has not radically altered the dynamics of bullying, but it has made these dynamics more visible to more people. we must use this visibility not to justify increased punishment, but to help youth who are actually crying out for attention.
p. 153 inequality. can SM resolve social divisions?
p. 176 literacy. are today’s youth digital natives? p. 178 Barlow and Rushkoff p. 179 Prensky. p. 180 youth need new literacies. p. 181 youth must become media literate. when they engage with media–either as consumers or producers–they need to have the skills to ask questions about the construction and dissemination of particular media artifacts. what biases are embedded in the artifact? how did the creator intend for an audience to interpret the artifact, and what are the consequences of that interpretation.
p. 183 the politics of algorithms (see also these IMS blog entries https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=algorithms) Wikipedia and google are fundamentally different sites. p. 186 Eli Pariser, The Filter Bubble: the personalization algorithms produce social divisions that undermine any ability to crate an informed public. Harvard’s Berkman Center have shown, search engines like Google shape the quality of information experienced by youth.
p. 192 digital inequality. p. 194 (bottom) 195 Eszter Hargittai: there are signifficant difference in media literacy and technical skills even within age cohorts. teens technological skills are strongly correlated with socio-economic status. Hargittai argues that many youth, far from being digital natives, are quite digitally naive.
p. 195 Dmitry  Epstein: when society frames the digital divide as a problem of access, we see government and industry as the responsible party for the addressing the issue. If DD as skills issue, we place the onus on learning how to manage on individuals and families.
p. 196 beyond digital natives

Palfrey, J., & Gasser, U. (2008). Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives (1 edition). New York: Basic Books.

John Palfrey, Urs Gasser: Born Digital
Digital Natives share a common global culture that is defined not by age, strictly, but by certain attributes and experience related to how they interact with information technologies, information itself, one another, and other people and institutions. Those who were not “born digital’ can be just as connected, if not more so, than their younger counterparts. And not everyone born since, say 1982, happens to be a digital native.” (see also https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims/2018/04/15/no-millennials-gen-z-gen-x/

p. 197. digital native rhetoric is worse than inaccurate: it is dangerous
many of the media literacy skills needed to be digitally savvy require a level of engagement that goes far beyond what the average teen pick up hanging out with friends on FB or Twitter. Technical skills, such as the ability to build online spaces requires active cultivation. Why some search queries return some content before others. Why social media push young people to learn how to to build their own systems, versus simply using a social media platforms. teens social status and position alone do not determine how fluent or informed they are via-a-vis technology.
p. 199 Searching for a public on their own

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Daum, M. (2018, August 24). My Affair With the Intellectual Dark Web – Great Escape. Retrieved October 9, 2018, from https://medium.com/s/greatescape/nuance-a-love-story-ae6a14991059

the intellectual dark web

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more on media literacy in this IMS blog
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=media+literacy

fake news in this IMS blog
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=fake+news

media literacy and fake news

Fight Fake News: Media Literacy for Students

Monday, October 15, 2018 @ 4:00 pm – 5:00 pm EDT

Fight Fake News

Presented by Tiffany Whitehead, School Librarian, Episcopal School of Baton Rouge, LA

Sponsored by Britannica Digital Learning

REGISTER HERE

JOIN THE LIVE SESSION

Teaching news literacy is more necessary and challenging than ever in a world where news is delivered at a constant pace from a broad range of sources. Since social media and filter bubbles can make it challenging to access unbiased, factual information, we must equip students to be critical as they access news sources for a variety of purposes. This live, interactive edWebinar will give an overview of the phenomenon of fake news going viral and tools educators can use to help students develop news literacy skills.

Tiffany Whitehead, School Librarian at Episcopal School of Baton Rouge in Louisiana, will share:

  • A strategy to develop fun, original lessons about media literacy
  • Fresh approaches that move students towards better news smarts
  • Three CCSS-aligned sample lesson plans for middle and high school classrooms
  • Teacher and librarian collaboration opportunities that support powerful student outcomes

Elementary through higher education level teachers, librarians, and school and district leaders will benefit from attending this session. There will be time to get your questions answered after Tiffany’s presentation.

Tiffany WhiteheadAbout the Presenter
Tiffany Whitehead, aka the Mighty Little Librarian, is an obsessive reader, social media user, and technology geek. She is the director of library at Episcopal School of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Tiffany earned her undergraduate degree in elementary education and School Library Certification from Southeastern Louisiana University, and her graduate degree in educational technology leadership from Northwestern State University. She has served as the president for ISTE’s Librarians Network and was recognized as one of ISTE’s 2014 Emerging Leaders. Tiffany is National Board Certified in Library Media and was named one of the 2014 Library Journal Movers & Shakers. She was the 2016 recipient of the Louisiana Library Media Specialist Award. She frequently speaks at local, state, and national conferences, sharing her passion for libraries and educational technology.

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Webinar notes

Definitions:

Media Literacy,

News Literacy

Fake News

Echo Chamber

https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/craigsilverman/viral-fake-election-news-outperformed-real-news-on-facebook

https://www.allsides.com/media-bias/media-bias-ratings

Fight The Fake: Fuel discussions with YouTube: https://britannicalearn.com/blog/fight-the-fake-youtube/

https://www.allsides.com/media-bias/media-bias-ratings

https://www.snopes.com/

https://www.britannica.com/insights

http://stxavier.libguides.com/news/factcheck

https://newseumed.org/curated-stack/media-literacy-resources

https://www.wnyc.org/story/breaking-news-consumers-handbook-pdf/

https://www.csuchico.edu/lins/handouts/eval_websites.pdf

Online CRAAP test: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdkWvyWZc7CE5fnYjCZww0IJLYH0sqxPRkmL8eS71uY1JNh1g/viewform?c=0&w=1

http://factitious.augamestudio.com/#/

Curriculum sources

How to choose your news Damon Brown: https://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-to-choose-your-news-damon-brown

Common Sense Media: Digital citizenship curriculum.

Newseum ed:

http://www.choices.edu/ Brown U Filtering News and Information

above the news: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC4K10PNjqgGLKA3lo5V8KdQ

06/2017 Homepage

https://www.amazon.com/Fact-Vs-Fiction-Teaching-Critical/dp/1564847047

https://newsela.com/

I’m now avoiding the term bias (too loaded and my kids automatically think “bad”). “Perspective” works better with my kids.

http://www.kappanonline.org/breakstone-need-new-approach-teaching-digital-literacy/

Filter Bubbles, Eli Pariser, TED talk https://www.ted.com/talks/eli_pariser_beware_online_filter

Credible Sources:

Circular Reporting

https://www.allsides.com/media-bias/media-bias-ratings

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more on fake news in this IMS blog
|https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=fake+news

 

 

media literacy part of digital citizenship

Making Media Literacy Central to Digital Citizenship

that kind of tech — expensive, bleeding-edge tools — makes headlines but doesn’t make it into many classrooms, especially the most needy ones. What does, however, is video.

68 percent of teachers are using video in their classrooms, and 74 percent of middle schoolers are watching videos for learning.

Video is a key aspect of our always-online attention economy that’s impacting votingbehavior, and fueling hate speech and trolling. Put simply: Video is a contested civic space.

We need to move from a conflation of digital citizenship with internet safety and protectionism to a view of digital citizenship that’s pro-active and prioritizes media literacy and savvy.

equip students with some essential questions they can use to unpack the intentions of anything they encounter. One way to facilitate this thinking is by using a tool like EdPuzzle

We need new ways of thinking that are web-specific. Mike Caulfield’s e-book is a great deep dive into this topic, but as an introduction to web literacy you might first dig into the notion of reading “around” as well as “down” media — that is, encouraging students to not just analyze the specific video or site they’re looking at but related content (e.g., where else an image appears using a reverse Google image search).

Active viewing — engaging more thoughtfully and deeply with what you watch — is a tried-and-true teaching strategy for making sure you don’t just watch media but retain information.

For this content, students shouldn’t just be working toward comprehension but critique; they need to not just understand what they watch, but also have something to say about it. One of my favorite techniques for facilitating this more dialogic and critical mode of video viewing is by using aclassroom backchannel, like TodaysMeet, during video viewings

only 3 percent of the time tweens and teens spend using social media is focused on creation

There are a ton of options out there for facilitating video creation and remix, but two of my favorites are MediaBreaker and Vidcode.

The Anti-Defamation League and Teaching Tolerance have lesson plans that connect to both past and present struggles, and one can also look to the co-created syllabi that have sprung up around Black Lives MatterCharlottesville, and beyond. Pair these resources with video creation tools,

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more on media literacy in this IMS blog
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=media+literacy

more on digital citizenship in this IMS blog
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=digital+citizenship

media literacy guide

The Global Critical Media Literacy Educators’ Resource Guide

http://gcml.org/the-global-critical-media-literacy-educators-resource-guide/

  • Introduction
  • About the GCMLP
  • Contacts for GCMLP Publication
  • Methods of Media Manipulation
  • Breaking the Corporate News Frame: Project Censored’s Networked News Commons
  • Validated Independent News Story Assignment
  • How to Find, Evaluate, and Summarize Validated Independent News Stories
  • Validated Independent News Story Grading Rubric
  • Validated Independent News Story Grading Criteria
  • Student Guide For Evaluating Web Sources
  • ‘Becoming the Media:’ Experiential Learning through Media Criticism and Political Activism During National Presidential Elections
  • ACME Classroom Activities: Challenging Big Media and News Censorship
  • Digging Deeper: Politico-Corporate Media Manipulation, Critical Thinking, and Democracy
  • Service Learning: The SUNY Buffalo State and Project Censored Partnership
  • Commodifying the Public Sphere Through Advertising and Commercial Media
  • Group Advertisement Assignment
  • Junk Food News Assignment
  • News Abuse Assignment
  • Meme Assignment
  • Solutions Video Project
  • Video Summary Assignment
  • Ethics Alerts: Applied Learning Opportunity in Higher Education
  • Ethics Alert Assignment
  • Critical Analysis of Gender Stereotypes on Television Assignment
  • Critical Analysis of Race, Ethnicity, and Class Stereotypes in Entertainment
  • 18 Fun and Easy Classroom Activities for Media Education
  • Five Ways to Flex Your Media Literacy Muscles
  • List of Independent and Corporate News and News Criticism Outlets
  • GCMLP Biographies and Participating Institutions
  • GCMLP Event on Your Campus Instructions
  • Sacred Heart University Graduate Program
  • Media Education for a Digital Generation Book Flyer

Regular Pages: https://www.dropbox.com/s/jp5isqrn6ijv9lx/ACMEbookFINAL101215.pdf?dl=0

Spreads:  https://www.dropbox.com/s/enya4iyyxahg8ik/ACMEbookFINAL101215SPREADS.pdf?dl=0

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more on media literacy in this IMS blog
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=media+literacy

on media literacy

Martens, H., & Hobbs, R. (2015). How Media Literacy Supports Civic Engagement in a Digital Age. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 23(2), 120–137. http://doi.org/10.1080/15456870.2014.961636

https://www.academia.edu/12170937/Martens_H._and_Hobbs_R._2015_._How_Media_Literacy_Supports_Civic_Engagement_in_A_Digital_Age._Atlantic_Journal_of_Communication_23_2_120_-137

p. 134 How the different forms of literacy interact and support each other is a key question for future research, giventoday’s complex and convergent media and information environment

p. 135 Our findings support the growing demand for policymakers, educators, and community advocates to embrace media literacy as an important resource to fulfill the promise of digital citizenship.

The librarian 2.0 social media literacy

The librarian 2.0: Identifying a typology of librarians’ social media literacy

http://lis.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/01/28/0961000613520027.full.pdf

Social media is the unifying term for these ‘new digital media phenomena […] in which ordinary users (i.e. not only media professionals) can com- municate with each other and create and share content with others online through their personal networked computers and digital mobile devices’ (Bechmann and Lomborg, 2013: 767).

First, social media communication is de-institutionalized, which means that media companies alone do not control the flow and distribution of information. Second, social media users are also information and content producers. We refer here to the collapse of production and consump- tion roles, labelled ‘prosumer’ (Jenkins, 2006) or ‘produs- age’ (Bruns, 2008). Third, social media communication is interactive and networked in nature.

public libraries must reconsider their positions as public knowledge providers (Anttiroiko and Savolainen, 2007). As a modern librarian’s task is to be able to use and distribute information in many formats other than print, he or she must be able to use all media, including digital media and social media.

social media literacy’ (SML), which is understood as ‘not only the practical and cognitive competencies pos- sessed by users of social media but also the motivation to employ these media effectively and appropriately for social interaction and communication on the web’ (Vanwynsberghe and Verdegem, 2013).

Zurkowski (1974: 6) defines ‘information literacy’ as the ability to utilize ‘the wide range of information tools as well as primary sources in modelling information solutions to their prob- lems’. With the rise of the Internet as a seemingly infinite source of information, the concept of information literacy gains more urgency (Sharpio and Hughes, 1996). In this respect, information literacy now includes having skills to identify an information problem (e.g. an unanswered ques- tion), accessing the location where information can be found, evaluating the information and using this informa- tion in problem-solving activities (Livingstone et al., 2005

The concept of information literacy was developed in the context of print media, while the concept of media literacy originated in the context of audio-visual media.  media literacy was framed as the ability to critically under- stand media messages. Information literacy instead focuses on the basic competence of locating information since infor- mation is often difficult to find or use.

In con- trast to information literacy research, media literacy research has also paid attention to questions related to the creation of content (Livingstone et al., 2008).

The second cluster consists of respondents who have the lowest score for SML factors and consequently are labelled social media laggards.    corresponds to people who have a rather negative attitude towards social media and do not (often) use social media at work or at home. Furthermore, social media laggards also have a very low level of social media knowledge and com- petencies. Of the respondents, 23.91% belong to this clus- ter; they have a high probability of being female and predominantly belong to older age groups.

The third cluster is the most social media literate group; therefore, we label respondents who fit within this cluster, social media literate users.  Though its members are usually female, this social media literate cluster contains the most men in comparison to the other clusters. The members of this cluster are situated in the younger age groups.  Hence, social media literates and social media workers include librarians who can serve as facili- tators or agents to guide and support other librarians dur- ing social media implementation.

four SML profiles: social media workers, social media laggards, social media literates and social media spare-time users. Social media workers are librarians who use social media mostly in the library and have a relatively high level of SML. Social media laggards do not use social media frequently either at home or at work and have a low level of SML. The social media literates are librarians who frequently use social media at home and at work and have a high level of SML. Finally, social media spare-time users are librarians who frequently use social media at home but not in the library and have an average level of SML.

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