Searching for "synchronous"

Asynchronous Virtual Field Experiences with 360 Video

Zolfaghari, M., Austin, C. K., Kosko, K. W., & Ferdig, R. E. (2020). Creating Asynchronous Virtual Field Experiences with 360 Video. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 28(2), 315–320.
https://www.learntechlib.org/p/216115/
The global COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted normal face-to-face classes across institutions. This has significantly impacted methods courses where preservice teachers (PSTs) practice pedagogy in the field (e.g., in the PreK-12 classroom). In this paper, we describe efforts to adapt an assignment originally situated in a face-to-face school placement into a virtual version. By utilizing multi-perspective 360 video, preliminary results suggest virtual field experiences can provide PSTs with similar experiences for observation-based assignments. Acknowledging that immersive virtual experiences are not a complete replacement for face-to-face field-based experiences, we suggest virtual field assignments can be a useful supplement or a viable alternative during a time of pandemic.

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more on Video 360 in this IMS blog
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=360
and specifically for education:
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=video+360+education

synchronous online instruction resources

SYNCHRONOUS ONLINE INSTRUCTION RESOURCES

https://www.facebook.com/groups/onlinelearningcollective/permalink/577177872912915/

open google doc to start crowd-sourcing tools/activities/strategies for interactive synchronous online instruction

https://docs.google.com/document/d/1NL5jESubV_kuxrg227LFRdIGOBpwgJvAQkcnYuGpmGA/edit?fbclid=IwAR0Kx7m75wHiKKMai18cAz8gdqaNK3J9wzsIliMDsTrKVVcX7ej6bSTJO4E

online synchronous or asynchronous

Teaching synchronously? Asynchronously? Which is really better?

https://thesocietypages.org/teaching/2020/04/10/teaching-synchronously-asynchronously-which-is-really-better/
Are you going to teach synchronously or asynchronously? What’s better for your students? What’s better for you?
in the synchronous online classroom you can readily help students remember why they registered for your course to begin with, which can be very grounding. 
The most popular reason for choosing this option for your teaching is flexibility regarding when work is done. Asynchronous classes have pedagogical benefits too. They allow students to literally “pause” your class when they are confused or need a break, something only possible in their dreams for in-person and synchronous online classes, which go at a pace not set by them at all. Also, the technology requirements to take in an asynchronous class are lower, and this is therefore more accessible to more students.

An example of “doing both”

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How to Reconnect With Students and Strengthen Your Remote Course

APRIL 09, 2020

https://www.chronicle.com/article/How-to-Reconnect-With-Students/248461

how to structure a supportive learning environment, and how that might apply to an emergency situation such as this, where many students struggle to stay focused, or find it difficult to learn with unfamiliar systems and technologies.

  • Normalize the abnormal.
  • Create an online presence.
  • Explain, and then explain some more.
  • Take advantage of the technology.
  • Foster community.

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more on synchronous vs asynchronous in this IMS blog
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=synchronous

synchronous vs asynchronous

My Note: synchronous vs asynchronous; Adobe Connect vs Zoom. Also Flipgrid for asynchronous videochats.

From: EDUCAUSE Listserv <BLEND-ONLINE@LISTSERV.EDUCAUSE.EDU> on behalf of Celine Greene <celine.greene@JHU.EDU>
Reply-To: EDUCAUSE Listserv <BLEND-ONLINE@LISTSERV.EDUCAUSE.EDU>
Date: Tuesday, April 23, 2019 at 2:38 PM
To: EDUCAUSE Listserv <BLEND-ONLINE@LISTSERV.EDUCAUSE.EDU>
Subject: [BLEND-ONLINE] Advice for Synchronous Online Classes Using Zoom Meetings?

Our school is transitioning from using Adobe Connect to using Zoom Meetings for synchronous online class sessions, of which most of our online courses schedule at least a few times each term. So after years of “controlling the user experience” with the Adobe Connect layouts and relying primarily on text chat, we are heading in the direction of screen sharing with the enhanced social and community-building experience of video “taking over” chat. Some people are very excited about this move, given the popularity and ease-of-use of the Zoom platforms. Other people are a little more wary – especially when it comes to large (e.g., 40 to 200+ students) classes.

Please share your thoughts and experiences on what faculty and students should be aware of when using Zoom Meetings (not the webinar) for a synchronous class session. Here’s some of the things I was curious about…

  • Do you have a set of “instructions” or recommendations for students — e.g. so they see the chat as it happens?
  • Are there any best practices in terms of meetings set-up that you recommend for your faculty? (Mute participants upon entry, always show meeting control bar, etc.)
  • Have there been some scenarios that have been fantastic or some that have been horrible for using Zoom?
  • Is there a class size where the number of participants starts negatively impacting the learning opportunity? (i.e., I realize Breakout rooms are an option but also not appropriate for all situations, such as having a guest speaker come in to have an interactive Q & A or having a software demonstration.)
  • Are there any major “fails” you’ve learned from or, alternately, success stories?
  • Are your students required to have Zoom accounts?
  • Do you have a method for tracking attendance?

Thanks for your input!  – celine  Celine Greene  Instructional Technologist  Center for Teaching and Learning, JHSPH http://ctl.jhsph.edu

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more on synchronous learning environments
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=synchronous

Blended Synchronous Learning Environment

Wang, Q., Quek, C., & Hu, H. (2017). Designing and Improving a Blended Synchronous Learning Environment : An Educational Design Research. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(3), 99-118

http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/3034/4142

Definition: blended synchronous learning has attracted much attention and it is often labelled with synchronous hybrid learning (Cain & Henriksen 2013); synchronous blended learning (Okita, 201 3 ); multi – access learning (Irvine, Code, & Richards, 2013); or simultaneous delivery of course s to on – campus and off – campus students (White et al ., 2010). Adapted from the definition given by Bower , Dalgarno, Kennedy, Lee, and Kenney (2015), blended synchronous learning in this paper is defined as a learning method that enables online students to participate in classroom learning activities simultaneously via comput er – mediated communication technologies such as video conferencing . By following this approach , on – campus students attend F2F le ssons in the physical classroom. M eanwhile, online students who are situated at multiple sites participate in the identical class room learning activities via two – way video conferencing in real time .

With regard to  educational benefits , blended synchronous learning can help to establish rich teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence ( Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 200 0 ; Szeto, 2015 ). A BSLE provides a mimic classroom environment (White et al. , 2010) , where teachers ’ direct instruction and facilitation can be easily carried out a nd the teaching presence is hence naturally established.

synchronous online learning

Creating Collaborative, Interactive & Engaging Online Learning Environments with Shindig

Shindig Interactive Video Chat for Canvas LMS, February 6, 2:00 – 3:00pm (EST)

Shindig recently announced its integration with Canvas by Instructure, bringing the former’s video chat platform to the learning management system.

Attend this webinar to learn how instructors can instantly schedule, customize and launch Shindig sessions directly from within the Canvas LMS, as well as automatically add the video chat sessions to students’ schedules.

Learn about the positive impact of collaborative and interactive learning environments on student success first-hand from educators and instructional technologists from leading universities. This session will highlight different use cases Shindig can be utilized for, including course delivery, office hours, guest speakers, workshops and more.

Early adopters of the Shindig platform will also be sharing highlight videos of their use of the platform and answering questions attendees may have.

Shindig Early Adopter Guest Speakers:

  • Michael AngillettaProfessor & Senior Sustainability Scholar, Associate Director of Undergraduate Programs, Arizona State University

Note: Watch the brief tutorial video, Canvas for Shindig

The Shindig Canvas plugin is available for free on a public GitHub Repo. Once the plugin is installed in the university’s LMS, IT administrators can contact Shindig for an API key to enable the creation of on-demand Shindig sessions in Canvas. The company is offering each Canvas client institution 10 free Shindig sessions of up to 1,000 attendees.
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First-time users: upon entering the room, click “Allow” to the Flash prompt requesting access to your webcam. (Chrome users may need to click Allow a second time).

Note: The Shindig app currently only supports interacting with the featured speakers through text. To fully enjoy the Shindig experience and be enabled to ask video chat questions of the speaker or video chat privately with other participants, please log in from a computer with webcam and microphone capabilities.

synchronous vs asynchronous

From the The EDUCAUSE Blended and Online Learning Constituent Group Listserv <BLEND-ONLINE@LISTSERV.EDUCAUSE.EDU>

Can you recommend a peer-reviewed research article that addresses the learning outcomes/learning effectiveness of asynchronous vs. synchronous teaching approaches in online courses?

We have a program that has required weekly synchronous sessions (held via Bb Collaborate) that support the otherwise asynchronous courses in the program. The department is considering making that requirement optional to accommodate worldwide learners, but there are faculty who are concerned about the impact to the learning and transfer of knowledge to the students.

Any research that addresses the differences in these teaching modalities when it comes to learning outcomes?

Thanks in advance,     Kristen     Kristen Brown     Assistant Director, Online Learning     Delphi Center for Teaching and Learning

I am happy to share my own dissertation research which specifically focused on this topic as well. Please email me and I will share. andy.black@nurs.utah.edu
My note: I emailed Andy and will attach his dissertation to this blog, if interest

final-dissertation-andy-black-asynchronous-synchronous

On Behalf Of Henri Moser
Sent: Friday, January 06, 2017 8:35 AM

Here is a link to my dissertation which centered on synchronous academic support for online graduate students.Best,Henri

http://dune.une.edu/theses/56/

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more on synchronous online learning in this IMS blog
https://blog.stcloudstate.edu/ims?s=synchronous

synchronous online learning

Most Faculty Tackle Synchronous Online Instruction Ill-Prepared

By Dian Schaffhauser 09/22/16

https://campustechnology.com/articles/2016/09/22/most-faculty-tackle-synchronous-online-instruction-ill-prepared.aspx

a new report from the Online Learning Consortium, a non-profit professional organization that aims to help educators integrate best practices into their online instruction. The OLC researchers involved in developing “What Can We Learn From Our Colleagues? A Framework for Virtual Classroom Training” solicited online responses from 733 people with “substantial” experience in teaching and “significant” experience in online.

Among the instructors who had taught using a synchronous classroom, two thirds (66 percent) had received training specifically on how to do that. A quarter (27 percent) received a month or more of training; a third (32 percent) received less than a day. A remarkable 55 percent took their training before going into a virtual classroom.

Half of the respondents were primarily self-taught; only 24 percent received formal training; and the remaining 26 percent did their learning through informal conversations with peers who teach synchronously. The training included lots of reading, video tutorials and listening to lectures — in other words, as the report’s authors noted, “sage on the stage” activities that are “antithetical to effective virtual classroom pedagogy.” Forty-one percent of people said synchronous activities “played little or no role in their virtual classroom training”; only 30 percent found that synchronous activities did play a substantial role.

What didn’t exist in training for almost four in five respondents were any of the following:

  • “Shadowing” of an experienced online instructor;
  • Teaching or co-teaching in a classroom being monitored by a trainer or experienced online instructor; or
  • Reviewing recordings of their own performances in a virtual classroom.

Also helpful, the survey found:

  • Peer coaching from colleagues;
  • Reviewing recordings of the instructor’s performance; and
  • Consulting with an instructional designer.

my note: another glaring proof that faculty IS needed in the process.

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more on synchronous online instruction in this IMS blog

synchronous solution for student to students and faculty to student interactions

From: The EDUCAUSE Blended and Online Learning Constituent Group Listserv [BLEND-ONLINE@listserv.educause.edu] on behalf of Meagher, Tina [meagher@XAVIER.EDU]
Sent: Wednesday, February 12, 2014 11:44 AM
To: BLEND-ONLINE@listserv.educause.edu
Subject: [BLEND-ONLINE] Synchronous solutions..

Hello,

I am leading a project group that is looking into a synchronous solution for student to students and faculty to student interactions. We recently started to use Canvas for our LMS and slowly moving away from Bb. Many of the faculty were using Wimba for synchronous classes and moments. Now faculty and students are using a combination of Big Blue Button, Webex, Skype and Google hangouts. We are trying to find a single solution for this. Can anyone let me know what they are using at their school for synchronous classes or moments, student group work and virtual office hours. Thanks so much for your time…

Tina

——-

Tina Meagher

Manager

Video and Digital Media Services

The Digital Media Lab

http://www.xavier.edu/dml

T:  (513) 745-3682
Xavier University
3800 Victory Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45207-0000

http://bigbluebutton.org/

http://www.zoom.us/ + https://canvas.instructure.com/login

 

 

 

iLearn2020

YouTube Live stream: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DSXLJGhI2D8&feature=youtu.be
and the Discord directions: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1GgI4dfq-iD85yJiyoyPApB33tIkRJRns1cJ8OpHAYno/editiLearn2020

Modest3D Guided Virtual Adventure – iLRN Conference 2020 – Session 1: currently, live session: https://youtu.be/GjxTPOFSGEM

https://mediaspace.minnstate.edu/media/Modest+3D/1_28ejh60g

CALL FOR PROPOSALS: GUIDED VIRTUAL ADVENTURE TOURS
at iLRN 2020: 6th International Conference of the Immersive Learning Research Network
Organized in conjunction with Educators in VR
Technically co-sponsored by the IEEE Education Society
June 21-25, 2020, Online
Conference theme: “Vision 20/20: Hindsight, Insight, and Foresight in XR and Immersive Learning”
Conference website: https://nam02.safelinks.protection.outlook.com/?url=http%3A%2F%2Fimmersivelrn.org%2Filrn2020&amp;data=02%7C01%7Cpmiltenoff%40STCLOUDSTATE.EDU%7C7a9997a1d6724744f7d708d7f52d9387%7C5011c7c60ab446ab9ef4fae74a921a7f%7C0%7C0%7C637247448406614239&amp;sdata=Jt%2BFUtP3Vs%2FQi1z9HCk9x8m%2B%2BRjkZ63qrcoZnFiUdaQ%3D&amp;reserved=0
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Wednesday, June 24 • 12:00pm – 1:00pm

 Instruction and Instructional Design

Presentation 1: Inspiring Faculty (+ Students) with Tales of Immersive Tech (Practitioner Presentation #106)

Authors: Nicholas Smerker

Immersive technologies – 360º video, virtual and augmented realities – are being discussed in many corners of higher education. For an instructor who is familiar with the terms, at least in passing, learning more about why they and their students should care can be challenging, at best. In order to create a font of inspiration, the IMEX Lab team within Teaching and Learning with Technology at Penn State devised its Get Inspired web resource. Building on a similar repository for making technology stories at the sister Maker Commons website, the IMEX Lab Get Inspired landing page invites faculty to discover real world examples of how cutting edge XR tools are being used every day. In addition to very approachable video content and a short summary calling out why our team chose the story, there are also instructional designer-developed Assignment Ideas that allow for quick deployment of exercises related to – though not always relying upon – the technologies highlighted in a given Get Inspired story.

Presentation 2: Lessons Learned from Over A Decade of Designing and Teaching Immersive VR in Higher Education Online Courses (Practitioner Presentation #101)

Authors: Eileen Oconnor

This presentation overviews the design and instruction in immersive virtual reality environments created by the author beginning with Second Life and progressing to open source venues. It will highlight the diversity of VR environment developed, the challenges that were overcome, and the accomplishment of students who created their own VR environments for K12, college and corporate settings. The instruction and design materials created to enable this 100% online master’s program accomplishment will be shared; an institute launched in 2018 for emerging technology study will be noted.

Presentation 3: Virtual Reality Student Teaching Experience: A Live, Remote Option for Learning Teaching Skills During Campus Closure and Social Distancing (Practitioner Presentation #110)

Authors: Becky Lane, Christine Havens-Hafer, Catherine Fiore, Brianna Mutsindashyaka and Lauren Suna

Summary: During the Coronavirus pandemic, Ithaca College teacher education majors needed a classroom of students in order to practice teaching and receive feedback, but the campus was closed, and gatherings forbidden. Students were unable to participate in live practice teaching required for their program. We developed a virtual reality pilot project to allow students to experiment in two third-party social VR programs, AltSpaceVR and Rumii. Social VR platforms allow a live, embodied experience that mimics in-person events to give students a more realistic, robust and synchronous teaching practice opportunity. We documented the process and lessons learned to inform, develop and scale next generation efforts.

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Tuesday, June 23 • 5:00pm – 6:00pm
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Sunday, June 21 • 8:00am – 9:00am
Escape the (Class)room games in OpenSim or Second Life FULLhttps://ilrn2020.sched.com/event/ceKP/escape-the-classroom-games-in-opensim-or-second-lifePre-registration for this tour is required as places are limited. Joining instructions will be emailed to registrants ahead of the scheduled tour time.The Guided Virtual Adventure tour will take you to EduNation in Second Life to experience an Escape room game. For one hour, a group of participants engage in voice communication and try to solve puzzles, riddles or conundrums and follow clues to eventually escape the space. These scenarios are designed for problem solving and negotiating language and are ideal for language education. They are fun and exciting and the clock ticking adds to game play.Tour guide(s)/leader(s): Philp Heike, let’s talk online sprl, Belgium

Target audience sector: Informal and/or lifelong learning

Supported devices: Desktop/laptop – Windows, Desktop/laptop – Mac

Platform/environment access: Download from a website and install on a desktop/laptop computer
Official website: http://www.secondlife.com

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Thursday, June 25 • 9:00am – 10:00am

Games and Gamification II

Click here to remove from My Sched.

Presentation 1: Evaluating the impact of multimodal Collaborative Virtual Environments on user’s spatial knowledge and experience of gamified educational tasks (Full Paper #91)

Authors: Ioannis Doumanis and Daphne Economou

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Several research projects in spatial cognition have suggested Virtual Environments (VEs) as an effective way of facilitating mental map development of a physical space. In the study reported in this paper, we evaluated the effectiveness of multimodal real-time interaction in distilling understanding of the VE after completing gamified educational tasks. We also measure the impact of these design elements on the user’s experience of educational tasks. The VE used reassembles an art gallery and it was built using REVERIE (Real and Virtual Engagement In Realistic Immersive Environment) a framework designed to enable multimodal communication on the Web. We compared the impact of REVERIE VG with an educational platform called Edu-Simulation for the same gamified educational tasks. We found that the multimodal VE had no impact on the ability of students to retain a mental model of the virtual space. However, we also found that students thought that it was easier to build a mental map of the virtual space in REVERIE VG. This means that using a multimodal CVE in a gamified educational experience does not benefit spatial performance, but also it does not cause distraction. The paper ends with future work and conclusions and suggestions for improving mental map construction and user experience in multimodal CVEs.

Presentation 2: A case study on student’s perception of the virtual game supported collaborative learning (Full Paper #42)

Authors: Xiuli Huang, Juhou He and Hongyan Wang

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The English education course in China aims to help students establish the English skills to enhance their international competitiveness. However, in traditional English classes, students often lack the linguistic environment to apply the English skills they learned in their textbook. Virtual reality (VR) technology can set up an immersive English language environment and then promote the learners to use English by presenting different collaborative communication tasks. In this paper, spherical video-based virtual reality technology was applied to build a linguistic environment and a collaborative learning strategy was adopted to promote their communication. Additionally, a mixed-methods research approach was used to analyze students’ achievement between a traditional classroom and a virtual reality supported collaborative classroom and their perception towards the two approaches. The experimental results revealed that the virtual reality supported collaborative classroom was able to enhance the students’ achievement. Moreover, by analyzing the interview, students’ attitudes towards the virtual reality supported collaborative class were reported and the use of language learning strategies in virtual reality supported collaborative class was represented. These findings could be valuable references for those who intend to create opportunities for students to collaborate and communicate in the target language in their classroom and then improve their language skills

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Thursday, June 25 • 11:00am – 12:00pm

 Games and Gamification III

Click here to remove from My Sched.

Presentation 1: Reducing Cognitive Load through the Worked Example Effect within a Serious Game Environment (Full Paper #19)

Authors: Bernadette Spieler, Naomi Pfaff and Wolfgang Slany

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Novices often struggle to represent problems mentally; the unfamiliar process can exhaust their cognitive resources, creating frustration that deters them from learning. By improving novices’ mental representation of problems, worked examples improve both problem-solving skills and transfer performance. Programming requires both skills. In programming, it is not sufficient to simply understand how Stackoverflow examples work; programmers have to be able to adapt the principles and apply them to their own programs. This paper shows evidence in support of the theory that worked examples are the most efficient mode of instruction for novices. In the present study, 42 students were asked to solve the tutorial The Magic Word, a game especially for girls created with the Catrobat programming environment. While the experimental group was presented with a series of worked examples of code, the control groups were instructed through theoretical text examples. The final task was a transfer question. While the average score was not significantly better in the worked example condition, the fact that participants in this experimental group finished significantly faster than the control group suggests that their overall performance was better than that of their counterparts.

Presentation 2: A literature review of e-government services with gamification elements (Full Paper #56)

Authors: Ruth S. Contreras-Espinosa and Alejandro Blanco-M

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Nowadays several democracies are facing the growing problem of a breach in communication between its citizens and their political representatives, resulting in low citizen’s engagement in the participation of political decision making and on public consultations. Therefore, it is fundamental to generate a constructive relationship between both public administration and the citizens by solving its needs. This document contains a useful literature review of the gamification topic and e-government services. The documents contain a background of those concepts and conduct a selection and analysis of the different applications found. A set of three lines of research gaps are found with a potential impact on future studies.

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Thursday, June 25 • 12:00pm – 1:00pm

 Museums and Libraries

Click here to remove from My Sched.

Presentation 1: Connecting User Experience to Learning in an Evaluation of an Immersive, Interactive, Multimodal Augmented Reality Virtual Diorama in a Natural History Museum & the Importance of Story (Full Paper #51)

Authors: Maria Harrington

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Reported are the findings of user experience and learning outcomes from a July 2019 study of an immersive, interactive, multimodal augmented reality (AR) application, used in the context of a museum. The AR Perpetual Garden App is unique in creating an immersive multisensory experience of data. It allowed scientifically naïve visitors to walk into a virtual diorama constructed as a data visualization of a springtime woodland understory, and interact with multimodal information directly through their senses. The user interface comprised of two different AR data visualization scenarios reinforced with data based ambient bioacoustics, an audio story of the curator’s narrative, and interactive access to plant facts. While actual learning and dwell times were the same between the AR app and the control condition, the AR experience received higher ratings on perceived learning. The AR interface design features of “Story” and “Plant Info” showed significant correlations with actual learning outcomes, while “Ease of Use” and “3D Plants” showed significant correlations with perceived learning. As such, designers and developers of AR apps can generalize these findings to inform future designs.

Presentation 2: The Naturalist’s Workshop: Virtual Reality Interaction with a Natural Science Educational Collection (Short Paper #11)

Authors: Colin Patrick Keenan, Cynthia Lincoln, Adam Rogers, Victoria Gerson, Jack Wingo, Mikhael Vasquez-Kool and Richard L. Blanton

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For experiential educators who utilize or maintain physical collections, The Naturalist’s Workshop is an exemplar virtual reality platform to interact with digitized collections in an intuitive and playful way. The Naturalist’s Workshop is a purpose-developed application for the Oculus Quest standalone virtual reality headset for use by museum visitors on the floor of the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences under the supervision of a volunteer attendant. Within the application, museum visitors are seated at a virtual desk. Using their hand controllers and head-mounted display, they explore drawers containing botanical specimens and tools-of-the-trade of a naturalist. While exploring, the participant can receive new information about any specimen by dropping it into a virtual examination tray. 360-degree photography and three-dimensionally scanned specimens are used to allow user-motivated, immersive experience of botanical meta-data such as specimen collection coordinates.

Presentation 3: 360˚ Videos: Entry level Immersive Media for Libraries and Education (Practitioner Presentation #132)

Authors: Diane Michaud

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Within the continuum of XR Technologies, 360˚ videos are relatively easy to produce and need only an inexpensive mobile VR viewer to provide a sense of immersion. 360˚ videos present an opportunity to reveal “behind the scenes” spaces that are normally inaccessible to users of academic libraries. This can promote engagement with unique special collections and specific library services. In December 2019, with little previous experience, I led the production of a short 360˚video tour, a walk-through of our institution’s archives. This was a first attempt; there are plans to transform it into a more interactive, user-driven exploration. The beta version successfully generated interest, but the enhanced version will also help prepare uninitiated users for the process of examining unique archival documents and artefacts. This presentation will cover the lessons learned, and what we would do differently for our next immersive video production. Additionally, I will propose that the medium of 360˚ video is ideal for many institutions’ current or recent predicament with campuses shutdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Online or immersive 360˚ video can be used for virtual tours of libraries and/or other campus spaces. Virtual tours would retain their value beyond current campus shutdowns as there will always be prospective students and families who cannot easily make a trip to campus. These virtual tours would provide a welcome alternative as they eliminate the financial burden of travel and can be taken at any time.

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